1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Adrenaclick® is indicated in the emergency treatment of allergic reactions (Type I) including anaphylaxis to stinging insects (e.g., order Hymenoptera, which includes bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets and fire ants), and biting insects (e.g., triatoma, mosquitoes), allergen immunotherapy, foods, drugs, diagnostic testing substances (e.g., radiocontrast media), and other allergens, as well as idiopathic anaphylaxis or exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Adrenaclick is intended for immediate administration in patients who are determined to be at increased risk for anaphylaxis, including individuals with a history of anaphylactic reactions. Anaphylactic reactions may occur within minutes after exposure and consist of flushing, apprehension, syncope, tachycardia, thready or unobtainable pulse associated with a fall in blood pressure, convulsions, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramps, involuntary voiding, wheezing, dyspnea due to laryngeal spasm, pruritus, rashes, urticaria, or angioedema. Adrenaclick is intended for immediate administration as emergency supportive therapy only and is not a replacement or substitute for immediate medical care. Adrenaclick contains epinephrine, a non-selective alpha and beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, indicated in the emergency treatment of allergic reactions (Type I) including anaphylaxis. (1)
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Injection, 0.3 mg/0.3 mL epinephrine injection, USP, pre-filled auto-injector Injection, 0.15 mg/0.15 mL epinephrine injection, USP, pre-filled auto-injector Injection, 0.3 mg: 0.3 mg/0.3 mL epinephrine injection, USP, pre-filled auto-injector (3) Injection, 0.15 mg: 0.15 mg/0.15 mL epinephrine injection, USP, pre-filled auto-injector (3)
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS None. None. (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS In conjunction with use, seek immediate medical or hospital care. (5.1) Do not inject intravenously, into buttock, or into digits, hands, or feet. (5.2) The presence of a sulfite in this product should not deter use. (5.3) Administer with caution in patients with heart disease; may aggravate angina pectoris or produce ventricular arrhythmias. (5.4) 5.1 Emergency Treatment Adrenaclick is intended for immediate administration as emergency supportive therapy and is not intended as a substitute for immediate medical care. In conjunction with the administration of epinephrine, the patient should seek immediate medical or hospital care. More than two sequential doses of epinephrine should only be administered under direct medical supervision [see Indications and Usage (1), Dosage and Administration (2) and Patient Counseling Information (17)]. 5.2 Incorrect Locations of Injection Adrenaclick should ONLY be injected into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Patient Counseling Information (17)]. Do not inject intravenously. Large doses or accidental intravenous injection of epinephrine may result in cerebral hemorrhage due to a sharp rise in blood pressure. Rapidly acting vasodilators can counteract the marked pressor effects of epinephrine if there is such inadvertent administration. Do not inject into buttock. Injection into the buttock may not provide effective treatment of anaphylaxis. Advise the patient to go immediately to the nearest emergency room for further treatment of anaphylaxis. Additionally, injection into the buttock has been associated with the development of gas gangrene. Cleansing with alcohol does not kill bacterial spores, and therefore, does not lower the risk. Do not inject into digits, hands or feet. Since epinephrine is a strong vasoconstrictor, accidental injection into the digits, hands or feet may result in loss of blood flow to the affected area. Advise the patient to go immediately to the nearest emergency room and to inform the healthcare provider in the emergency room of the location of the accidental injection. Treatment of such inadvertent administration should consist of vasodilation, in addition to further appropriate treatment of anaphylaxis [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. 5.3 Allergic Reactions Associated with Sulfite The presence of a sulfite in this product should not deter administration of the drug for treatment of serious allergic or other emergency situations even if the patient is sulfite-sensitive. Epinephrine is the preferred treatment for serious allergic reactions or other emergency situations even though this product contains sodium bisulfite, a sulfite that may, in other products, cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms or life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible persons. The alternatives to using epinephrine in a life-threatening situation may not be satisfactory. 5.4 Disease Interactions Some patients may be at greater risk for developing adverse reactions after epinephrine administration. Despite these concerns, it should be recognized that the presence of these conditions is not a contraindication to epinephrine administration in an acute, life-threatening situation. Therefore, patients with these conditions, and/or any other person who might be in a position to administer Adrenaclick to a patient experiencing anaphylaxis should be carefully instructed in regard to the circumstances under which epinephrine should be used. Patients with Heart Disease Epinephrine should be administered with caution to patients who have heart disease, including patients with cardiac arrhythmias, coronary artery or organic heart disease, or hypertension. In such patients, or in patients who are on drugs that may sensitize the heart to arrhythmias, epinephrine may precipitate or aggravate angina pectoris as well as produce ventricular arrhythmias [see Drug Interactions (7) and Adverse Reactions (6)]. Other Patients and Diseases Epinephrine should be administered with caution to patients with hyperthyroidism, diabetes, elderly individuals, and pregnant women. Patients with Parkinson's disease may notice a temporary worsening of symptoms.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Due to the lack of randomized, controlled clinical trials of epinephrine for the treatment of anaphylaxis, the true incidence of adverse reactions associated with the systemic use of epinephrine is difficult to determine. Adverse reactions reported in observational trials, case reports, and studies are listed below. Common adverse reactions to systemically administered epinephrine include anxiety; apprehensiveness; restlessness; tremor; weakness; dizziness; sweating; palpitations; pallor; nausea and vomiting; headache, and/or respiratory difficulties. These symptoms occur in some persons receiving therapeutic doses of epinephrine, but are more likely to occur in patients with hypertension or hyperthyroidism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Arrhythmias, including fatal ventricular fibrillation, have been reported, particularly in patients with underlying cardiac disease or those receiving certain drugs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Drug Interactions (7)]. Rapid rises in blood pressure have produced cerebral hemorrhage, particularly in elderly patients with cardiovascular disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Angina may occur in patients with coronary artery disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Accidental injection into the digits, hands or feet may result in loss of blood flow to the affected area [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Adverse events experienced as a result of accidental injections may include increased heart rate, local reactions including injection site pallor, coldness and hypoesthesia or injury at the injection site resulting in bruising, bleeding, discoloration, erythema or skeletal injury. Injection into the buttock has resulted in cases of gas gangrene [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Adverse reactions to epinephrine include anxiety, apprehensiveness, restlessness, tremor, weakness, dizziness, sweating, palpitations, pallor, nausea and vomiting, headache, and/or respiratory difficulties. (6) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Amedra Pharmaceuticals LLC at 1-888-894-6528 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Patients who receive epinephrine while concomitantly taking cardiac glycosides, diuretics, or anti-arrhythmics should be observed carefully for the development of cardiac arrhythmias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. The effects of epinephrine may be potentiated by tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, levothyroxine sodium, and certain antihistamines, notably chlorpheniramine, tripelennamine, and diphenhydramine. The cardiostimulating and bronchodilating effects of epinephrine are antagonized by beta-adrenergic blocking drugs, such as propranolol. The vasoconstricting and hypertensive effects of epinephrine are antagonized by alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs, such as phentolamine. Ergot alkaloids may also reverse the pressor effects of epinephrine. Cardiac glycosides or diuretics: observe for development of cardiac arrhythmias. (7) Tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, levothyroxine sodium, and certain antihistamines: potentiate effects of epinephrine. (7) Beta-adrenergic blocking drugs: antagonize cardiostimulating and bronchodilating effects of epinephrine. (7) Alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs: antagonize vasoconstricting and hypertensive effects of epinephrine. (7) Ergot alkaloids: may reverse the pressor effects of epinephrine. (7)
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Elderly patients may be at greater risk of developing adverse reactions. (5.4, 8.5) 8.1 Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C. There are no adequate and well controlled studies of the acute effect of epinephrine in pregnant women. Epinephrine was teratogenic in rabbits, mice and hamsters. Epinephrine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus (fetal anoxia, spontaneous abortion, or both). Epinephrine has been shown to have teratogenic effects when administered subcutaneously in rabbits at approximately 30 times the maximum recommended daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 1.2 mg/kg/day for two to three days), in mice at approximately 7 times the maximum daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 10 days), and in hamsters at approximately 5 times the maximum recommended daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 4 days). These effects were not seen in mice at approximately 3 times the maximum recommended daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose (on a mg/m2 basis at a subcutaneous maternal dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 10 days). 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether epinephrine is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Adrenaclick is administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use Adrenaclick may be administered to pediatric patients at a dosage appropriate to body weight [see Dosage and Administration (2)]. Clinical experience with the use of epinephrine suggests that the adverse reactions seen in children are similar in nature and extent to those both expected and reported in adults. Since the dose of epinephrine delivered from Adrenaclick is fixed, consider using other forms of injectable epinephrine if doses lower than 0.15 mg are deemed necessary. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies for the treatment of anaphylaxis have not been performed in subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. However, other reported clinical experience with use of epinephrine for the treatment of anaphylaxis has identified that geriatric patients may be particularly sensitive to the effects of epinephrine. Therefore, Adrenaclick should be administered with caution in elderly individuals, who may be at greater risk for developing adverse reactions after epinephrine administration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Overdosage (10)].