WARNING: SECONDARY EXPOSURE TO TESTOSTERONE Virilization has been reported in children who were secondarily exposed to testosterone gel [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)] . Children should avoid contact with unwashed or unclothed application sites in men using testosterone gel [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] . Healthcare providers should advise patients to strictly adhere to recommended instructions for use [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Patient Counseling Information (17)] . WARNING: SECONDARY EXPOSURE TO TESTOSTERONE See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Virilization has been reported in children who were secondarily exposed to testosterone gel (5.2, 6.2). Children should avoid contact with unwashed or unclothed application sites in men using testosterone gel (2.2, 5.2). Healthcare providers should advise patients to strictly adhere to recommended instructions for use (2.2, 5.2, 17).
|Indications and Usage (1) ||5/2015 |
|Dosage and Administration (2) ||5/2015 |
|Dosage and Administration (2.2) ||11/2014 |
|Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ||6/2014 |
|Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ||5/2015 |
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE AndroGel 1.62% is indicated for replacement therapy in adult males for conditions associated with a deficiency or absence of endogenous testosterone: Primary hypogonadism (congenital or acquired): testicular failure due to conditions such as cryptorchidism, bilateral torsion, orchitis, vanishing testis syndrome, orchiectomy, Klinefelter's syndrome, chemotherapy, or toxic damage from alcohol or heavy metals. These men usually have low serum testosterone concentrations and gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], luteinizing hormone [LH]) above the normal range. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (congenital or acquired): gonadotropin or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) deficiency or pituitary-hypothalamic injury from tumors, trauma, or radiation. These men have low testosterone serum concentrations, but have gonadotropins in the normal or low range. Limitations of use: Safety and efficacy of AndroGel 1.62% in men with “age-related hypogonadism” (also referred to as “late-onset hypogonadism”) have not been established. Safety and efficacy of AndroGel 1.62% in males less than 18 years old have not been established [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. Topical testosterone products may have different doses, strengths, or application instructions that may result in different systemic exposure [see Indications and Usage (1), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. AndroGel 1.62% is indicated for replacement therapy in males for conditions associated with a deficiency or absence of endogenous testosterone: Primary hypogonadism (congenital or acquired) (1) Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (congenital or acquired) (1) Limitations of use: Safety and efficacy of AndroGel 1.62% in men with “age-related hypogonadism” have not been established. (1) Safety and efficacy of AndroGel 1.62% in males less than 18 years old have not been established. (1, 8.4) Topical testosterone products may have different doses, strengths, or application instructions that may result in different systemic exposure. (1, 12.3)
Table 1: Dose Adjustment Criteria
| Pre-Dose Morning Total Serum Testosterone Concentration || Dose Titration |
|Greater than 750 ng/dL ||Decrease daily dose by 20.25 mg (1 pump actuation or the equivalent of one 20.25 mg packet) |
|Equal to or greater than 350 and equal to or less than 750 ng/dL ||No change: continue on current dose |
|Less than 350 ng/dL ||Increase daily dose by 20.25 mg (1 pump actuation or the equivalent of one 20.25 mg packet) |
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS AndroGel (testosterone gel) 1.62% for topical use only, is available as follows: A metered-dose pump. Each pump actuation delivers 20.25 mg of testosterone in 1.25 g of gel. A unit dose packet containing 20.25 mg of testosterone in 1.25 g of gel. A unit dose packet containing 40.5 mg of testosterone in 2.5 g of gel. AndroGel (testosterone gel) 1.62% for topical use is available as follows: a metered-dose pump that delivers 20.25 mg testosterone per actuation. (3) packets containing 20.25 mg testosterone. (3) packets containing 40.5 mg testosterone. (3)
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS AndroGel 1.62% is contraindicated in men with carcinoma of the breast or known or suspected carcinoma of the prostate [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. AndroGel 1.62% is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant, or who are breastfeeding. AndroGel 1.62% may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. AndroGel 1.62% may cause serious adverse reactions in nursing infants. Exposure of a fetus or nursing infant to androgens may result in varying degrees of virilization. Pregnant women or those who may become pregnant need to be aware of the potential for transfer of testosterone from men treated with AndroGel 1.62%. If a pregnant woman is exposed to AndroGel 1.62%, she should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)]. Men with carcinoma of the breast or known or suspected prostate cancer (4, 5.1) Pregnant or breast-feeding women. Testosterone may cause fetal harm (4, 8.1, 8.3)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Monitor patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) for worsening of signs and symptoms of BPH (5.1) Avoid unintentional exposure of women or children to AndroGel 1.62%. Secondary exposure to testosterone can produce signs of virilization. AndroGel 1.62% should be discontinued until the cause of virilization is identified (5.2) Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) have been reported in patients using testosterone products. Evaluate patients with signs or symptoms consistent with DVT or PE. (5.4) Some postmarketing studies have shown an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke associated with use of testosterone replacement therapy. (5.5) Exogenous administration of androgens may lead to azoospermia (5.7) Edema with or without congestive heart failure (CHF) may be a complication in patients with preexisting cardiac, renal, or hepatic disease (5.9) Sleep apnea may occur in those with risk factors (5.11) Monitor serum testosterone, prostate specific antigen (PSA), hemoglobin, hematocrit, liver function tests and lipid concentrations periodically (5.1, 5.3, 5.8, 5.12) AndroGel 1.62% is flammable until dry (5.15) 5.1 Worsening of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) and Potential Risk of Prostate Cancer Patients with BPH treated with androgens are at an increased risk for worsening of signs and symptoms of BPH. Monitor patients with BPH for worsening signs and symptoms. Patients treated with androgens may be at increased risk for prostate cancer. Evaluation of patients for prostate cancer prior to initiating and during treatment with androgens is appropriate [see Contraindications (4)]. 5.2 Potential for Secondary Exposure to Testosterone Cases of secondary exposure resulting in virilization of children have been reported in postmarketing surveillance of testosterone gel products. Signs and symptoms have included enlargement of the penis or clitoris, development of pubic hair, increased erections and libido, aggressive behavior, and advanced bone age. In most cases, these signs and symptoms regressed with removal of the exposure to testosterone gel. In a few cases, however, enlarged genitalia did not fully return to age-appropriate normal size, and bone age remained modestly greater than chronological age. The risk of transfer was increased in some of these cases by not adhering to precautions for the appropriate use of the topical testosterone product. Children and women should avoid contact with unwashed or unclothed application sites in men using AndroGel 1.62% [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Inappropriate changes in genital size or development of pubic hair or libido in children, or changes in body hair distribution, significant increase in acne, or other signs of virilization in adult women should be brought to the attention of a physician and the possibility of secondary exposure to testosterone gel should also be brought to the attention of a physician. Testosterone gel should be promptly discontinued until the cause of virilization has been identified. 5.3 Polycythemia Increases in hematocrit, reflective of increases in red blood cell mass, may require lowering or discontinuation of testosterone. Check hematocrit prior to initiating treatment. It would also be appropriate to re-evaluate the hematocrit 3 to 6 months after starting treatment, and then annually. If hematocrit becomes elevated, stop therapy until hematocrit decreases to an acceptable concentration. An increase in red blood cell mass may increase the risk of thromboembolic events. 5.4 Venous Thromboembolism There have been postmarketing reports of venous thromboembolic events, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), in patients using testosterone products such as AndroGel 1.62%. Evaluate patients who report symptoms of pain, edema, warmth and erythema in the lower extremity for DVT and those who present with acute shortness of breath for PE. If a venous thromboembolic event is suspected, discontinue treatment with AndroGel 1.62% and initiate appropriate workup and management [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] . 5.5 Cardiovascular Risk Long term clinical safety trials have not been conducted to assess the cardiovascular outcomes of testosterone replacement therapy in men. To date, epidemiologic studies and randomized controlled trials have been inconclusive for determining the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), such as non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and cardiovascular death, with the use of testosterone compared to non-use. Some studies, but not all, have reported an increased risk of MACE in association with use of testosterone replacement therapy in men. Patients should be informed of this possible risk when deciding whether to use or to continue to use AndroGel 1.62%. 5.6 Use in Women Due to the lack of controlled evaluations in women and potential virilizing effects, AndroGel 1.62% is not indicated for use in women [see Contraindications (4) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)]. 5.7 Potential for Adverse Effects on Spermatogenesis With large doses of exogenous androgens, including AndroGel 1.62%, spermatogenesis may be suppressed through feedback inhibition of pituitary FSH possibly leading to adverse effects on semen parameters including sperm count. 5.8 Hepatic Adverse Effects Prolonged use of high doses of orally active 17-alpha-alkyl androgens (e.g., methyltestosterone) has been associated with serious hepatic adverse effects (peliosis hepatis, hepatic neoplasms, cholestatic hepatitis, and jaundice). Peliosis hepatis can be a life-threatening or fatal complication. Long-term therapy with intramuscular testosterone enanthate has produced multiple hepatic adenomas. AndroGel 1.62% is not known to cause these adverse effects. 5.9 Edema Androgens, including AndroGel 1.62%, may promote retention of sodium and water. Edema, with or without congestive heart failure, may be a serious complication in patients with preexisting cardiac, renal, or hepatic disease [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. 5.10 Gynecomastia Gynecomastia may develop and persist in patients being treated with androgens, including AndroGel 1.62%, for hypogonadism. 5.11 Sleep Apnea The treatment of hypogonadal men with testosterone may potentiate sleep apnea in some patients, especially those with risk factors such as obesity or chronic lung diseases. 5.12 Lipids Changes in serum lipid profile may require dose adjustment or discontinuation of testosterone therapy. 5.13 Hypercalcemia Androgens, including AndroGel 1.62 %, should be used with caution in cancer patients at risk of hypercalcemia (and associated hypercalciuria). Regular monitoring of serum calcium concentrations is recommended in these patients. 5.14 Decreased Thyroxine-binding Globulin Androgens, including AndroGel 1.62%, may decrease concentrations of thyroxin-binding globulins, resulting in decreased total T4 serum concentrations and increased resin uptake of T3 and T4. Free thyroid hormone concentrations remain unchanged, however, and there is no clinical evidence of thyroid dysfunction. 5.15 Flammability Alcohol based products, including AndroGel 1.62%, are flammable; therefore, patients should be advised to avoid fire, flame or smoking until the AndroGel 1.62% has dried.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The most common adverse reaction (incidence ≥ 5%) is an increase in prostate specific antigen (PSA). (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact AbbVie Inc. at 1-800-633-9110 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Trial Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. AndroGel 1.62% was evaluated in a two-phase, 364-day, controlled clinical study. The first phase was a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled period of 182 days, in which 234 hypogonadal men were treated with AndroGel 1.62% and 40 received placebo. Patients could continue in an open-label, non-comparative, maintenance period for an additional 182 days [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]. The most common adverse reaction reported in the double-blind period was increased prostate specific antigen (PSA) reported in 26 AndroGel 1.62%-treated patients (11.1%). In 17 patients, increased PSA was considered an adverse event by meeting one of the two pre-specified criteria for abnormal PSA values, defined as (1) average serum PSA >4 ng/mL based on two separate determinations, or (2) an average change from baseline in serum PSA of greater than 0.75 ng/mL on two determinations. During the 182-day, double-blind period of the clinical trial, the mean change in serum PSA value was 0.14 ng/mL for patients receiving AndroGel 1.62% and -0.12 ng/mL for the patients in the placebo group. During the double-blind period, seven patients had a PSA value >4.0 ng/mL, four of these seven patients had PSA less than or equal to 4.0 ng/mL upon repeat testing. The other three patients did not undergo repeat PSA testing. During the 182-day, open-label period of the study, the mean change in serum PSA values was 0.10 ng/mL for both patients continuing on active therapy and patients transitioning onto active from placebo. During the open-label period, three patients had a serum PSA value > 4.0 ng/mL, two of whom had a serum PSA less than or equal to 4.0 ng/mL upon repeated testing. The other patient did not undergo repeat PSA testing. Among previous placebo patients, 3 of 28 (10.7%), had increased PSA as an adverse event in the open-label period. Table 4 shows adverse reactions reported by >2% of patients in the 182-day, double-blind period of the AndroGel 1.62% clinical trial and more frequent in the AndroGel 1.62% treated group versus placebo. Table 4: Adverse Reactions Reported in >2% of Patients in the 182-Day, Double-Blind Period of AndroGel 1.62% Clinical Trial * PSA increased includes: PSA values that met pre-specified criteria for abnormal PSA values (an average change from baseline > 0.75 ng/mL and/or an average PSA value >4.0 ng/mL based on two measurements) as well as those reported as adverse events. ** Emotional lability includes: mood swings, affective disorder, impatience, anger, and aggression. *** Contact dermatitis includes: 4 patients with dermatitis at non-application sites. Number (%) of Patients Adverse Reaction AndroGel 1.62% N=234 Placebo N=40 PSA increased* 26 (11.1%) 0% Emotional lability** 6 (2.6%) 0% Hypertension 5 (2.1%) 0% Hematocrit or hemoglobin increased 5 (2.1%) 0% Contact dermatitis*** 5 (2.1%) 0% Other adverse reactions occurring in less than or equal to 2% of AndroGel 1.62%-treated patients and more frequently than placebo included: frequent urination, and hyperlipidemia. In the open-label period of the study (N=191), the most commonly reported adverse reaction (experienced by greater than 2% of patients) was increased PSA (n=13; 6.2%) and sinusitis. Other adverse reactions reported by less than or equal to 2% of patients included increased hemoglobin or hematocrit, hypertension, acne, libido decreased, insomnia, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. During the 182-day, double-blind period of the clinical trial, 25 AndroGel 1.62%-treated patients (10.7%) discontinued treatment because of adverse reactions. These adverse reactions included 17 patients with PSA increased and 1 report each of: hematocrit increased, blood pressure increased, frequent urination, diarrhea, fatigue, pituitary tumor, dizziness, skin erythema and skin nodule (same patient – neither at application site), vasovagal syncope, and diabetes mellitus. During the 182-day, open-label period, 9 patients discontinued treatment because of adverse reactions. These adverse reactions included 6 reports of PSA increased, 2 of hematocrit increased, and 1 each of triglycerides increased and prostate cancer. Application Site Reactions In the 182-day double-blind period of the study, application site reactions were reported in two (2/234; 0.9%) patients receiving AndroGel 1.62%, both of which resolved. Neither of these patients discontinued the study due to application site adverse reactions. In the open-label period of the study, application site reactions were reported in three (3/219; 1.4%) additional patients that were treated with AndroGel 1.62%. None of these subjects were discontinued from the study due to application site reactions. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of AndroGel 1%. Because the reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure (Table 5). Table 5: Adverse Reactions from Post Approval Experience of AndroGel 1% by System Organ Class * Impaired urination includes nocturia, urinary hesitancy, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, urinary urgency and weak urinary stream ** Lab test abnormal includes elevated AST, elevated ALT, elevated testosterone, elevated hemoglobin or hematocrit, elevated cholesterol, elevated cholesterol/LDL ratio, elevated triglycerides, or elevated serum creatinine *** Testis disorder includes atrophy or non-palpable testis, varicocele, testis sensitivity or tenderness System Organ Class Adverse Reaction Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Elevated hemoglobin or hematocrit, polycythemia, anemia Cardiovascular disorders: Myocardial infarction, stroke Endocrine disorders: Hirsutism Gastrointestinal disorders: Nausea General disorders: Asthenia, edema, malaise Genitourinary disorders: Impaired urination* Hepatobiliary disorders: Abnormal liver function tests Investigations: Lab test abnormal**, elevated PSA, electrolyte changes (nitrogen, calcium, potassium [includes hypokalemia], phosphorus, sodium), impaired glucose tolerance, hyperlipidemia, HDL, fluctuating testosterone levels, weight increase Neoplasms: Prostate cancer Nervous system disorders: Dizziness, headache, insomnia, sleep apnea Psychiatric disorders: Amnesia, anxiety, depression, hostility, emotional lability, decreased libido, nervousness Reproductive system and breast disorders: Gynecomastia, mastodynia, oligospermia, priapism (frequent or prolonged erections), prostate enlargement, BPH, testis disorder*** Respiratory disorders: Dyspnea Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Acne, alopecia, application site reaction (discolored hair, dry skin, erythema, paresthesia, pruritus, rash), skin dry, pruritus, sweating Vascular disorders: Hypertension, vasodilation (hot flushes), venous thromboembolism Secondary Exposure to Testosterone in Children Cases of secondary exposure to testosterone resulting in virilization of children have been reported in postmarketing surveillance of testosterone gel products. Signs and symptoms of these reported cases have included enlargement of the clitoris (with surgical intervention) or the penis, development of pubic hair, increased erections and libido, aggressive behavior, and advanced bone age. In most cases with a reported outcome, these signs and symptoms were reported to have regressed with removal of the testosterone gel exposure. In a few cases, however, enlarged genitalia did not fully return to age appropriate normal size, and bone age remained modestly greater than chronological age. In some of the cases, direct contact with the sites of application on the skin of men using testosterone gel was reported. In at least one reported case, the reporter considered the possibility of secondary exposure from items such as the testosterone gel user's shirts and/or other fabric, such as towels and sheets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Androgens may decrease blood glucose and therefore may decrease insulin requirements in diabetic patients (7.1) Changes in anticoagulant activity may be seen with androgens. More frequent monitoring of International Normalized Ratio (INR) and prothrombin time is recommended (7.2) Use of testosterone with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or corticosteroids may result in increased fluid retention. Use with caution, particularly in patients with cardiac, renal, or hepatic disease (7.3) 7.1 Insulin Changes in insulin sensitivity or glycemic control may occur in patients treated with androgens. In diabetic patients, the metabolic effects of androgens may decrease blood glucose and, therefore, may decrease insulin requirements. 7.2 Oral Anticoagulants Changes in anticoagulant activity may be seen with androgens, therefore more frequent monitoring of international normalized ratio (INR) and prothrombin time are recommended in patients taking anticoagulants, especially at the initiation and termination of androgen therapy. 7.3 Corticosteroids The concurrent use of testosterone with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or corticosteroids may result in increased fluid retention and requires careful monitoring particularly in patients with cardiac, renal or hepatic disease.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS There are insufficient long-term safety data in geriatric patients using AndroGel 1.62% to assess the potential risks of cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer. (8.5) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category X [see Contraindications (4)]: AndroGel 1.62% is contraindicated during pregnancy or in women who may become pregnant. Testosterone is teratogenic and may cause fetal harm. Exposure of a fetus to androgens may result in varying degrees of virilization. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be made aware of the potential hazard to the fetus. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Although it is not known how much testosterone transfers into human milk, AndroGel 1.62% is contraindicated in nursing women because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants. Testosterone and other androgens may adversely affect lactation [see Contraindications (4)]. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of AndroGel 1.62% in pediatric patients less than 18 years old has not been established. Improper use may result in acceleration of bone age and premature closure of epiphyses. 8.5 Geriatric Use There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric patients involved in controlled clinical studies utilizing AndroGel 1.62% to determine whether efficacy in those over 65 years of age differs from younger subjects. Of the 234 patients enrolled in the clinical trial utilizing AndroGel 1.62%, 21 were over 65 years of age. Additionally, there is insufficient long-term safety data in geriatric patients to assess the potentially increased risks of cardiovascular disease and prostate cancer. Geriatric patients treated with androgens may also be at risk for worsening of signs and symptoms of BPH. 8.6 Renal Impairment No studies were conducted involving patients with renal impairment. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment No studies were conducted in patients with hepatic impairment.