Serious adverse cardiac events, including acute myocardial infarction and life-threatening disturbances of cardiac rhythm (5.1) It is strongly recommended that AXERT® not be given to patients in whom unrecognized coronary artery disease (CAD) is predicted by the presence of risk factors. In very rare cases, serious cardiovascular events have been reported in association with AXERT® use in the absence of known cardiovascular disease. If AXERT® is considered, patients should first have a cardiovascular evaluation. If the evaluation is satisfactory, first dose should take place in a physician's office setting (5.1) Sensations of pain, tightness, pressure, and heaviness in the chest, throat, neck, and jaw: generally not associated with myocardial ischemia, but patients with signs or symptoms suggestive of angina should be evaluated for the presence of CAD (5.2) Cerebrovascular events, some fatal (5.3) Gastrointestinal ischemic events and peripheral vasospastic reactions (e.g., Raynaud's syndrome) (5.4) Potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome, particularly in combination with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Monitor patients for neurologic changes and gastrointestinal symptoms if concomitant treatment is clinically warranted (5.5, 7.3) Medication overuse headache: Detoxification may be necessary (5.6) Increase in blood pressure, very rarely associated with significant clinical events (4.4, 5.7) Use with caution in patients with a known hypersensitivity to sulfonamides (5.8) 5.1 Risk of Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction and Other Adverse Cardiac Events Cardiac Events and Fatalities with 5-HT1 Agonists Serious adverse cardiac events, including acute myocardial infarction, have been reported within a few hours following administration of AXERT® (almotriptan malate). Life-threatening disturbances of cardiac rhythm and death have been reported within a few hours following the administration of other triptans. Considering the extent of use of triptans in patients with migraine, the incidence of these events is extremely low. AXERT® can cause coronary vasospasm; at least one of these events occurred in a patient with no cardiac history and with documented absence of coronary artery disease. Because of the close proximity of the events to use of AXERT®, a causal relationship cannot be excluded. Patients who experience signs or symptoms suggestive of angina following dosing should be evaluated for the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) or a predisposition to Prinzmetal's variant angina before receiving additional doses of medication, and should be monitored electrocardiographically if dosing is resumed and similar symptoms recur. Premarketing Experience with AXERT® in Adults Among the 3865 subjects/patients who received AXERT® in premarketing clinical trials, one patient was hospitalized for observation after a scheduled electrocardiogram (ECG) was found to be abnormal (negative T-waves on the left leads) 48 hours after taking a single 6.25 mg dose of almotriptan. The patient, a 48-year-old female, had previously taken 3 other doses for earlier migraine attacks. Myocardial enzymes at the time of the abnormal ECG were normal. The patient was diagnosed as having had myocardial ischemia and that she had a family history of coronary disease. An ECG performed 2 days later was normal, as was a follow-up coronary angiography. The patient recovered without incident. Postmarketing Experience with AXERT® in Adults Serious cardiovascular events have been reported in association with the use of AXERT®. The uncontrolled nature of postmarketing surveillance, however, makes it impossible to definitively determine the proportion of the reported cases that were actually caused by almotriptan or to reliably assess causation in individual cases [see Adverse Reactions (6.3)]. Patients with Documented Coronary Artery Disease Because of the potential of this class of compound (5-HT1 agonists) to cause coronary vasospasm, AXERT® should not be given to patients with documented ischemic or vasospastic coronary artery disease [see Contraindications (4.1)]. Patients with Risk Factors for CAD It is strongly recommended that AXERT® not be given to patients in whom unrecognized CAD is predicted by the presence of risk factors (e.g., hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoker, obesity, diabetes, strong family history of CAD, female with surgical or physiological menopause, or male over 40 years of age) unless a cardiovascular evaluation provides satisfactory clinical evidence that the patient is reasonably free of coronary artery and ischemic myocardial disease or other significant underlying cardiovascular disease. The sensitivity of cardiac diagnostic procedures to detect cardiovascular disease or predisposition to coronary artery vasospasm is modest, at best. If, during the cardiovascular evaluation, the patient's medical history, electrocardiographic or other investigations reveal findings indicative of, or consistent with, coronary artery vasospasm or myocardial ischemia, AXERT® should not be administered [see Contraindications (4.1)]. For patients with risk factors predictive of CAD, who are determined to have a satisfactory cardiovascular evaluation, it is strongly recommended that administration of the first dose of AXERT® take place in the setting of a physician's office or similar medically staffed and equipped facility unless the patient has previously received AXERT®. Because cardiac ischemia can occur in the absence of clinical symptoms, consideration should be given to obtaining on the first occasion of use an ECG during the interval immediately following AXERT®, in these patients with risk factors. It is recommended that patients who are intermittent long-term users of AXERT® and who have or acquire risk factors predictive of CAD, as described above, undergo periodic interval cardiovascular evaluation as they continue to use AXERT®. The systematic approach described above is intended to reduce the likelihood that patients with unrecognized cardiovascular disease will be inadvertently exposed to AXERT®. The ability of cardiac diagnostic procedures to detect all cardiovascular diseases or predisposition to coronary artery vasospasm is modest at best. Cardiovascular events associated with triptan treatment have occurred in patients with no cardiac history and with documented absence of coronary artery disease. 5.2 Sensations of Pain, Tightness, Pressure in the Chest and/or Throat, Neck, and Jaw As with other 5-HT1 agonists, sensations of tightness, pain, pressure, and heaviness in the precordium, throat, neck, and jaw have been reported after treatment with AXERT®. Because 5-HT1 agonists may cause coronary vasospasm, patients who experience signs or symptoms suggestive of angina following dosing should be evaluated for the presence of CAD or a predisposition to Prinzmetal's variant angina before receiving additional doses of medication, and should be monitored electrocardiographically if dosing is resumed and similar symptoms occur. Patients shown to have CAD and those with Prinzmetal's variant angina should not receive 5-HT1 agonists [see Contraindications (4.1) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. 5.3 Cerebrovascular Events and Fatalities Cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, and other cerebrovascular events have been reported in patients treated with other triptans and some events have resulted in fatalities. In a number of cases, it appeared possible that the cerebrovascular events were primary, the triptan having been administered in the incorrect belief that the symptoms experienced were a consequence of migraine, when they were not. As with other acute migraine therapies, before treating headaches in patients not previously diagnosed as migraineurs and in migraineurs who present with atypical symptoms, care should be taken to exclude other potentially serious neurological conditions. It should be noted that patients with migraine may be at increased risk of certain cerebrovascular events (e.g., stroke, hemorrhage, and transient ischemic attack) [see Contraindications (4.2)]. 5.4 Other Vasospasm-Related Events, Including Peripheral Vascular Ischemia and Colonic Ischemia Triptans, including AXERT®, may cause vasospastic reactions other than coronary artery vasospasm, such as peripheral and gastrointestinal vascular ischemia with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. Very rare reports of transient and permanent blindness and significant partial vision loss have been reported with the use of triptans. Visual disorders may also be part of a migraine attack. Patients who experience symptoms or signs suggestive of decreased arterial flow following the use of any triptan, such as ischemic bowel syndrome or Raynaud's syndrome, are candidates for further evaluation [see Contraindications (4.3)]. 5.5 Serotonin Syndrome The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome may occur with triptans, including AXERT®, particularly during combined use with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). If concomitant treatment with AXERT® and an SSRI (e.g., fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, fluvoxamine, citalopram, escitalopram) or SNRI (e.g., venlafaxine, duloxetine) is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination) and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) [See Drug Interactions (7.3)]. 5.6 Medication Overuse Headache Overuse of acute migraine drugs (e.g., ergotamine, triptans, opioids, or combination of these drugs for 10 or more days per month) may lead to exacerbation of headache (medication overuse headache). Medication overuse headache may present as migraine-like daily headaches or as a marked increase in frequency of migraine attacks. Detoxification of patients, including withdrawal of the overused drugs, and treatment of withdrawal symptoms (which often includes a transient worsening of headache) may be necessary. 5.7 Increases in Blood Pressure As with other triptans, significant elevations in systemic blood pressure have been reported on rare occasions with AXERT® use in patients with and without a history of hypertension; very rarely these increases in blood pressure have been associated with significant clinical events. AXERT® is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled hypertension [see Contraindications (4.4)]. In normotensive healthy subjects and patients with hypertension controlled by medication, small, but clinically insignificant, increases in mean systolic (0.21 and 4.87 mm Hg, respectively) and diastolic (1.35 and 0.26 mm Hg, respectively) blood pressure relative to placebo were seen over the first 4 hours after oral administration of 12.5 mg of almotriptan. An 18% increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure was seen following dosing with another triptan in a study evaluating subjects undergoing cardiac catheterization. 5.8 Hypersensitivity to Sulfonamides Caution should be exercised when prescribing AXERT® to patients with known hypersensitivity to sulfonamides. The chemical structure of almotriptan contains a sulfonyl group, which is structurally different from a sulfonamide. Cross-sensitivity to almotriptan in patients allergic to sulfonamides has not been systematically evaluated. 5.9 Impaired Hepatic or Renal Function AXERT® should be administered with caution to patients with diseases that may alter the absorption, metabolism, or excretion of drugs, such as those with impaired hepatic or renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 5.10 Binding to Melanin-Containing Tissues When pigmented rats were given a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg of radiolabeled almotriptan, the elimination half-life of radioactivity from the eye was 22 days. This finding suggests that almotriptan and/or its metabolites may bind to melanin in the eye. Because almotriptan could accumulate in melanin-rich tissues over time, there is the possibility that it could cause toxicity in these tissues with extended use. However, no adverse retinal effects related to treatment with almotriptan were noted in a 52-week toxicity study in dogs given up to 12.5 mg/kg/day (resulting in exposure [AUC] to parent drug approximately 20 times that in humans receiving the maximum recommended human dose of 25 mg/day). Although no systematic monitoring of ophthalmologic function was undertaken in clinical trials, and no specific recommendations for ophthalmologic monitoring are offered, prescribers should be aware of the possibility of long-term ophthalmologic effects. 5.11 Corneal Opacities Three male dogs (out of a total of 14 treated) in a 52-week toxicity study of oral almotriptan developed slight corneal opacities that were noted after 51 weeks, but not after 25 weeks of treatment. The doses at which this occurred were 2, 5, and 12.5 mg/kg/day. The opacity reversed after a 4-week drug-free period in the affected dog treated with the highest dose. Systemic exposure (plasma AUC) to parent drug at 2 mg/kg/day was approximately 2.5 times the exposure in humans receiving the maximum recommended human daily dose of 25 mg. A no-effect dose was not established.