| Contraindications (4) || 12/2014 |
| Warnings and Precautions |
- •Acute interstitial nephritis (5.2)
- •Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) Deficiency (5.3)
| 12/2014 12/2014 |
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE DEXILANT is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) indicated for: •Healing of all grades of erosive esophagitis (EE). (1.1) •Maintaining healing of EE and relief of heartburn. (1.2) •Treating heartburn associated with symptomatic non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). (1.3) 1.1 Healing of Erosive Esophagitis DEXILANT is indicated for healing of all grades of erosive esophagitis (EE) for up to eight weeks. 1.2 Maintenance of Healed Erosive Esophagitis DEXILANT is indicated to maintain healing of EE and relief of heartburn for up to six months. 1.3 Symptomatic Non-Erosive Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease DEXILANT is indicated for the treatment of heartburn associated with symptomatic non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) for four weeks.
| Table 1. DEXILANT Dosing Recommendations |
| Indication || Recommended Dose || Frequency |
| Healing of EE || 60 mg || Once daily for up to 8 weeks |
| Maintenance of Healed EE and relief of heartburn || 30 mg || Once dailyControlled studies did not extend beyond 6 months. |
| Symptomatic Non-Erosive GERD || 30 mg || Once daily for 4 weeks |
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS •30 mg delayed-release capsules are opaque, blue and gray with TAP and "30" imprinted on the capsule. •60 mg delayed-release capsules are opaque, blue with TAP and "60" imprinted on the capsule. •Delayed-Release Capsules: 30 mg and 60 mg. (3)
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS DEXILANT is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any component of the formulation [see Description (11) ]. Hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis have been reported with DEXILANT use. Acute interstitial nephritis has been reported with other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), including lansoprazole [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ] . •Patients with known hypersensitivity to any component of the formulation. (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS • Gastric Malignancy: Symptomatic response with DEXILANT does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. (5.1) •Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs. (5.2) • Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) Deficiency: Daily long-term use (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption or a deficiency of cyanocobalamin. (5.3) • Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea: PPI therapy may be associated with increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea. (5.4) • Bone Fracture: Long-term and multiple daily dose PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist or spine. (5.5) • Hypomagnesemia: Hypomagnesemia has been reported rarely with prolonged treatment with PPIs. (5.6) 5.1 Gastric Malignancy Symptomatic response with DEXILANT does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. 5.2 Acute Interstitial Nephritis Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs including lansoprazole. Acute interstitial nephritis may occur at any point during PPI therapy and is generally attributed to an idiopathic hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue DEXILANT if acute interstitial nephritis develops[ see Contraindications (4) ]. 5.3 Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) Deficiency Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) caused by hypo- or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed. 5.4 Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea Published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy like DEXILANT may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] . Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. 5.5 Bone Fracture Several published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the conditions being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Adverse Reactions (6)]. 5.6 Hypomagnesemia Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI. For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. 5.7 Concomitant Use of DEXILANT with Methotrexate Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration, a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see Drug Interactions (7.5)].
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Most commonly reported adverse reactions (≥2%): diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, upper respiratory tract infection, vomiting, and flatulence. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Takeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc. at 1-877-TAKEDA-7 (1-877-825-3327) or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The safety of DEXILANT was evaluated in 4548 patients in controlled and uncontrolled clinical studies, including 863 patients treated for at least six months and 203 patients treated for one year. Patients ranged in age from 18 to 90 years (median age 48 years), with 54% female, 85% Caucasian, 8% Black, 4% Asian, and 3% other races. Six randomized controlled clinical trials were conducted for the treatment of EE, maintenance of healed EE, and symptomatic GERD, which included 896 patients on placebo, 455 patients on DEXILANT 30 mg, 2218 patients on DEXILANT 60 mg, and 1363 patients on lansoprazole 30 mg once daily. Most Commonly Reported Adverse Reactions The most common adverse reactions (≥2%) that occurred at a higher incidence for DEXILANT than placebo in the controlled studies are presented in Table 2. Table 2. Incidence of Adverse Reactions in Controlled Studies Adverse Reaction Placebo (N=896) % DEXILANT 30 mg (N=455) % DEXILANT 60 mg (N=2218) % DEXILANT Total (N=2621) % Lansoprazole 30 mg (N=1363) % Diarrhea 2.9 5.1 4.7 4.8 3.2 Abdominal Pain 3.5 3.5 4.0 4.0 2.6 Nausea 2.6 3.3 2.8 2.9 1.8 Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 0.8 2.9 1.7 1.9 0.8 Vomiting 0.8 2.2 1.4 1.6 1.1 Flatulence 0.6 2.6 1.4 1.6 1.2 Adverse Reactions Resulting in Discontinuation In controlled clinical studies, the most common adverse reaction leading to discontinuation from DEXILANT therapy was diarrhea (0.7%). Other Adverse Reactions Other adverse reactions that were reported in controlled studies at an incidence of less than 2% are listed below by body system: Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: anemia, lymphadenopathy Cardiac Disorders: angina, arrhythmia, bradycardia, chest pain, edema, myocardial infarction, palpitation, tachycardia Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: ear pain, tinnitus, vertigo Endocrine Disorders: goiter Eye Disorders: eye irritation, eye swelling Gastrointestinal Disorders: abdominal discomfort, abdominal tenderness, abnormal feces, anal discomfort, Barrett's esophagus, bezoar, bowel sounds abnormal, breath odor, colitis microscopic, colonic polyp, constipation, dry mouth, duodenitis, dyspepsia, dysphagia, enteritis, eructation, esophagitis, gastric polyp, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal disorders, gastrointestinal hypermotility disorders, GERD, GI ulcers and perforation, hematemesis, hematochezia, hemorrhoids, impaired gastric emptying, irritable bowel syndrome, mucus stools, oral mucosal blistering, painful defecation, proctitis, paresthesia oral, rectal hemorrhage, retching General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: adverse drug reaction, asthenia, chest pain, chills, feeling abnormal, inflammation, mucosal inflammation, nodule, pain, pyrexia Hepatobiliary Disorders: biliary colic, cholelithiasis, hepatomegaly Immune System Disorders: hypersensitivity Infections and Infestations: candida infections, influenza, nasopharyngitis, oral herpes, pharyngitis, sinusitis, viral infection, vulvo-vaginal infection Injury, Poisoning and Procedural Complications: falls, fractures, joint sprains, overdose, procedural pain, sunburn Laboratory Investigations: ALP increased, ALT increased, AST increased, bilirubin decreased/increased, blood creatinine increased, blood gastrin increased, blood glucose increased, blood potassium increased, liver function test abnormal, platelet count decreased, total protein increased, weight increase Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: appetite changes, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: arthralgia, arthritis, muscle cramps, musculoskeletal pain, myalgia Nervous System Disorders: altered taste, convulsion, dizziness, headaches, migraine, memory impairment, paresthesia, psychomotor hyperactivity, tremor, trigeminal neuralgia Psychiatric Disorders: abnormal dreams, anxiety, depression, insomnia, libido changes Renal and Urinary Disorders: dysuria, micturition urgency Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, menorrhagia, menstrual disorder Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: aspiration, asthma, bronchitis, cough, dyspnoea, hiccups, hyperventilation, respiratory tract congestion, sore throat Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: acne, dermatitis, erythema, pruritis, rash, skin lesion, urticaria Vascular Disorders: deep vein thrombosis, hot flush, hypertension Additional adverse reactions that were reported in a long-term uncontrolled study and were considered related to DEXILANT by the treating physician included: anaphylaxis, auditory hallucination, B-cell lymphoma, bursitis, central obesity, cholecystitis acute, dehydration, diabetes mellitus, dysphonia, epistaxis, folliculitis, gout, herpes zoster, hyperlipidemia, hypothyroidism, increased neutrophils, MCHC decrease, neutropenia, rectal tenesmus, restless legs syndrome, somnolence, tonsillitis. Other adverse reactions not observed with DEXILANT, but occurring with the racemate lansoprazole can be found in the lansoprazole prescribing information, ADVERSE REACTIONS section. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval of DEXILANT. As these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: autoimmune hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: deafness Eye Disorders: blurred vision Gastrointestinal Disorders: oral edema, pancreatitis General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: facial edema Hepatobiliary Disorders: drug-induced hepatitis Immune System Disorders: anaphylactic shock (requiring emergency intervention), exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal) Infections and Infestations: Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia Musculoskeletal System Disorders: bone fracture Nervous System Disorders: cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack Renal and Urinary Disorders: acute renal failure Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: pharyngeal edema, throat tightness Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: generalized rash, leukocytoclastic vasculitis
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS • Atazanavir: Do not co-administer with DEXILANT because atazanavir systemic concentrations may be substantially decreased. (7.1) •Drugs with pH-dependent absorption (e.g., ampicillin esters, digoxin, iron salts, ketoconazole, erlotinib, mycophenolate mofetil):DEXILANT may interfere with absorption of drugs for which gastric pH is important for bioavailability. (7.1) • Warfarin: Patients taking concomitant warfarin may require monitoring for increases in international normalized ratio (INR) and prothrombin time. (7.2) • Tacrolimus: Concomitant tacrolimus use may increase tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. (7.3) • Methotrexate: DEXILANT may increase serum levels of methotrexate. (7.5) 7.1 Drugs with pH-Dependent Absorption Kinetics Due to its effects on gastric acid secretion, dexlansoprazole can reduce the absorption of drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of their bioavailability. Like with other drugs that decrease the intragastric acidity, the absorption of drugs such as ampicillin esters, ketoconazole, atazanavir, iron salts, erlotinib, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) can decrease, while the absorption of drugs such as digoxin can increase during treatment with DEXILANT. DEXILANT is likely to substantially decrease the systemic concentrations of the HIV protease inhibitor atazanavir, which is dependent upon the presence of gastric acid for absorption, and may result in a loss of therapeutic effect of atazanavir and the development of HIV resistance. Therefore, DEXILANT should not be co-administered with atazanavir. Co-administration of PPIs in healthy subjects and in transplant patients receiving MMF has been reported to reduce the exposure to the active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), possibly due to a decrease in MMF solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical relevance of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving PPIs and MMF. Use DEXILANT with caution in transplant patients receiving MMF. 7.2 Warfarin Co-administration of DEXILANT 90 mg and warfarin 25 mg did not affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin or INR [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. However, there have been reports of increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving PPIs and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with DEXILANT and warfarin concomitantly may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time. 7.3 Tacrolimus Concomitant administration of dexlansoprazole and tacrolimus may increase whole blood levels of tacrolimus, especially in transplant patients who are intermediate or poor metabolizers of CYP2C19. 7.4 Clopidogrel Concomitant administration of dexlansoprazole and clopidogrel in healthy subjects had no clinically important effect on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel or clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. No dose adjustment of clopidogrel is necessary when administered with an approved dose of DEXILANT. 7.5 Methotrexate Case reports, published population pharmacokinetic studies, and retrospective analyses suggest that concomitant administration of PPIs and methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate. However, no formal drug interaction studies of high-dose methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category B. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with dexlansoprazole in pregnant women. There were no adverse fetal effects in animal reproduction studies of dexlansoprazole in rabbits. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, DEXILANT should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. A reproduction study conducted in rabbits at oral dexlansoprazole doses up to approximately nine times the maximum recommended human dexlansoprazole dose (60 mg/day) revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to dexlansoprazole. In addition, reproduction studies performed in pregnant rats with oral lansoprazole at doses up to 40 times the recommended human lansoprazole dose and in pregnant rabbits at oral lansoprazole doses up to 16 times the recommended human lansoprazole dose revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to lansoprazole [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)]. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether dexlansoprazole is excreted in human milk. However, lansoprazole and its metabolites are present in rat milk following the administration of lansoprazole. As many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for lansoprazole in rat carcinogenicity studies [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)], a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of DEXILANT in pediatric patients (less than 18 years of age) have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use In clinical studies of DEXILANT, 11% of patients were aged 65 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients, and other reported clinical experience has not identified significant differences in responses between geriatric and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.6 Renal Impairment No dosage adjustment of DEXILANT is necessary in patients with renal impairment. The pharmacokinetics of dexlansoprazole in patients with renal impairment are not expected to be altered since dexlansoprazole is extensively metabolized in the liver to inactive metabolites, and no parent drug is recovered in the urine following an oral dose of dexlansoprazole [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment No dosage adjustment for DEXILANT is necessary for patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A). DEXILANT 30 mg should be considered for patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B). No studies have been conducted in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].