The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling: Hepatic failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Birth defects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Decreased IQ following in utero exposure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Pancreatitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] Hyperammonemic encephalopathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6), (5.9), (5.10)] Suicidal behavior and ideation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] Bleeding and other hematopoietic disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ] Hypothermia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)] Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)/Multi-organ hypersensitivity reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)] Somnolence in the elderly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)] Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Information on pediatric adverse reactions is presented in section 8. Most common adverse reactions (reported >5%) reported in adult studies are nausea, somnolence, dizziness, vomiting, asthenia, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, rash, diarrhea, increased appetite, tremor, weight gain, back pain, alopecia, headache, fever, anorexia, constipation, diplopia, amblyopia/blurred, ataxia, nystagmus, emotional lability, thinking abnormal, amnesia, flu syndrome, infection, bronchitis, rhinitis, ecchymosis, peripheral edema, insomnia, nervousness, depression, pharyngitis, dyspnea, tinnitus (6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4). The safety and tolerability of valproate in pediatric patients were shown to be comparable to those in adults (8.4). To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Amneal Pharmaceuticals at 1-877-835-5472 or www.amneal.com or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch 6.1 Mania The incidence of treatment-emergent events has been ascertained based on combined data from two three week placebo-controlled clinical trials of divalproex sodium extended-release in the treatment of manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder. Table 3 summarizes those adverse reactions reported for patients in these trials where the incidence rate in the divalproex sodium extended-release-treated group was greater than 5% and greater than the placebo incidence. Table 3. Adverse Reactions Reported by > 5% of Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release-Treated Patients During Placebo-Controlled Trials of Acute Mania1 Adverse Event Divalproex Sodium Extended-Release (n=338) Placebo (n=263) Somnolence 26% 14% Dyspepsia 23% 11% Nausea 19% 13% Vomiting 13% 5% Diarrhea 12% 8% Dizziness 12% 7% Pain 11% 10% Abdominal pain 10% 5% Accidental injury 6% 5% Asthenia 6% 5% Pharyngitis 6% 5% 1. The following adverse reactions/event occurred at an equal or greater incidence for placebo than for divalproex sodium extended-release: headache The following additional adverse reactions were reported by greater than 1% of the divalproex sodium extended-release-treated patients in controlled clinical trials: Body as a Whole: Back Pain, Chills, Chills and Fever, Drug Level Increased, Flu Syndrome, Infection, Infection Fungal, Neck Rigidity. Cardiovascular System: Arrhythmia, Hypertension, Hypotension, Postural Hypotension. Digestive System: Constipation, Dry Mouth, Dysphagia, Fecal Incontinence, Flatulence, Gastroenteritis, Glossitis, Gum Hemorrhage, Mouth Ulceration. Hemic and Lymphatic System: Anemia, Bleeding Time Increased, Ecchymosis, Leucopenia. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Hypoproteinemia, Peripheral Edema. Musculoskeletal System: Arthrosis, Myalgia. Nervous System: Abnormal Gait, Agitation, Catatonic Reaction, Dysarthria, Hallucinations, Hypertonia, Hypokinesia, Psychosis, Reflexes Increased, Sleep Disorder, Tardive Dyskinesia, Tremor. Respiratory System: Hiccup, Rhinitis. Skin and Appendages: Discoid Lupus Erythematosus, Erythema Nodosum, Furunculosis, Maculopapular Rash, Pruritus, Rash, Seborrhea, Sweating, Vesiculobullous Rash. Special Senses: Conjunctivitis, Dry Eyes, Eye Disorder, Eye Pain, Photophobia, Taste Perversion. Urogenital System: Cystitis, Urinary Tract Infection, Menstrual Disorder, Vaginitis. 6.2 Epilepsy Based on a placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive therapy for treatment of complex partial seizures, divalproex sodium delayed-release was generally well tolerated with most adverse reactions rated as mild to moderate in severity. Intolerance was the primary reason for discontinuation in the divalproex sodium delayed-release-treated patients (6%), compared to 1% of placebo-treated patients. Table 4 lists treatment-emergent adverse reactions which were reported by ≥ 5% of divalproex sodium delayed-release-treated patients and for which the incidence was greater than in the placebo group, in the placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive therapy for treatment of complex partial seizures. Since patients were also treated with other antiepilepsy drugs, it is not possible, in most cases, to determine whether the following adverse reactions can be ascribed to divalproex sodium delayed-release alone, or the combination of divalproex sodium delayed-release and other antiepilepsy drugs. Table 4. Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥ 5% of Patients Treated with Valproate During Placebo-Controlled Trial of Adjunctive Therapy for Complex Partial Seizures Body System/Event Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release (%) (N=77) Placebo (%) (N=70) Body as a Whole Headache 31 21 Asthenia 27 7 Fever 6 4 Gastrointestinal System Nausea 48 14 Vomiting 27 7 Abdominal pain 23 6 Diarrhea 13 6 Anorexia 12 0 Dyspepsia 8 4 Constipation 5 1 Nervous System Somnolence 27 11 Tremor 25 6 Dizziness 25 13 Diplopia 16 9 Amblyopia/Blurred Vision 12 9 Ataxia 8 1 Nystagmus 8 1 Emotional Lability 6 4 Thinking Abnormal 6 0 Amnesia 5 1 Respiratory System Flu Syndrome 12 9 Infection 12 6 Bronchitis 5 1 Rhinitis 5 4 Other Alopecia 6 1 Weight Loss 6 0 Table 5 lists treatment-emergent adverse reactions which were reported by ≥ 5% of patients in the high dose valproate group, and for which the incidence was greater than in the low dose group, in a controlled trial of divalproex sodium delayed-release monotherapy treatment of complex partial seizures. Since patients were being titrated off another antiepilepsy drug during the first portion of the trial, it is not possible, in many cases, to determine whether the following adverse reactions can be ascribed to divalproex sodium delayed-release alone, or the combination of valproate and other antiepilepsy drugs. Table 5. Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥ 5% of Patients in the High Dose Group in the Controlled Trial of Valproate Monotherapy for Complex Partial Seizures1 Body System/Event High Dose (%) (n=131) Low Dose (%) (n=134) Body as a Whole Asthenia 21 10 Digestive System Nausea 34 26 Diarrhea 23 19 Vomiting 23 15 Abdominal pain 12 9 Anorexia 11 4 Dyspepsia 11 10 Hemic/Lymphatic System Thrombocytopenia 24 1 Ecchymosis 5 4 Metabolic/Nutritional Weight Gain 9 4 Peripheral Edema 8 3 Nervous System Tremor 57 19 Somnolence 30 18 Dizziness 18 13 Insomnia 15 9 Nervousness 11 7 Amnesia 7 4 Nystagmus 7 1 Depression 5 4 Respiratory System Infection 20 13 Pharyngitis 8 2 Dyspnea 5 1 Skin and Appendages Alopecia 24 13 Special Senses Amblyopia/Blurred Vision 8 4 Tinnitus 7 1 1. Headache was the only adverse event that occurred in ≥5% of patients in the high dose group and at an equal or greater incidence in the low dose group. The following additional adverse reactions were reported by greater than 1% but less than 5% of the 358 patients treated with valproate in the controlled trials of complex partial seizures: Body as a Whole: Back pain, chest pain, malaise. Cardiovascular System: Tachycardia, hypertension, palpitation. Digestive System: Increased appetite, flatulence, hematemesis, eructation, pancreatitis, periodontal abscess. Hemic and Lymphatic System: Petechia. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: SGOT increased, SGPT increased. Musculoskeletal System: Myalgia, twitching, arthralgia, leg cramps, myasthenia. Nervous System: Anxiety, confusion, abnormal gait, paresthesia, hypertonia, incoordination, abnormal dreams, personality disorder. Respiratory System: Sinusitis, cough increased, pneumonia, epistaxis. Skin and Appendages: Rash, pruritus, dry skin. Special Senses: Taste perversion, abnormal vision, deafness, otitis media. Urogenital System: Urinary incontinence, vaginitis, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, urinary frequency. 6.3 Migraine Based on two placebo-controlled clinical trials and their long term extension, valproate was generally well tolerated with most adverse reactions rated as mild to moderate in severity. Of the 202 patients exposed to valproate in the placebo-controlled trials, 17% discontinued for intolerance. This is compared to a rate of 5% for the 81 placebo patients. Including the long term extension study, the adverse reactions reported as the primary reason for discontinuation by ≥ 1% of 248 valproate-treated patients were alopecia (6%), nausea and/or vomiting (5%), weight gain (2%), tremor (2%), somnolence (1%), elevated SGOT and/or SGPT (1%) and depression (1%). Table 6 includes those adverse reactions reported for patients in the placebo-controlled trial where the incidence rate in the divalproex sodium extended-release-treated group was greater than 5% and was greater than that for placebo patients. Table 6. Adverse Reactions Reported by >5% of Divalproex Sodium Extended-Release-Treated Patients During the Migraine Placebo-Controlled Trial with a Greater Incidence than Patients Taking Placebo1 Body System Event Divalproex Sodium Extended-Release (n=122) Placebo (n=115) Gastrointestinal System Nausea 15% 9% Dyspepsia 7% 4% Diarrhea 7% 3% Vomiting 7% 2% Abdominal Pain 7% 5% Nervous System Somnolence 7% 2% Other Infection 15% 14% 1. The following adverse reactions occurred in greater than 5% of divalproex sodium extended-release-treated patients and at a greater incidence for placebo than for divalproex sodium extended-release: asthenia and flu syndrome. The following additional adverse reactions were reported by greater than 1% but not more than 5% of divalproex sodium extended-release-treated patients and with a greater incidence than placebo in the placebo-controlled clinical trial for migraine prophylaxis: Body as a Whole: Accidental injury, viral infection. Digestive System: Increased appetite, tooth disorder. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Edema, weight gain. Nervous System: Abnormal gait, dizziness, hypertonia, insomnia, nervousness, tremor, vertigo. Respiratory System: Pharyngitis, rhinitis. Skin and Appendages: Rash. Special Senses: Tinnitus. Table 7 includes those adverse reactions reported for patients in the placebo-controlled trials where the incidence rate in the valproate-treated group was greater than 5% and was greater than that for placebo patients. Table 7. Adverse Reactions Reported by > 5% of Valproate-Treated Patients During Migraine Placebo-Controlled Trials with a Greater Incidence than Patients Taking Placebo1 Body System Reaction Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release (n=202) Placebo (n=81) Gastrointestinal System Nausea 31% 10% Dyspepsia 13% 9% Diarrhea 12% 7% Vomiting 11% 1% Abdominal pain 9% 4% Increased appetite 6% 4% Nervous System Asthenia 20% 9% Somnolence 17% 5% Dizziness 12% 6% Tremor 9% 0% Other Weight gain 8% 2% Back pain 8% 6% Alopecia 7% 1% 1. The following adverse reactions occurred in greater than 5% of divalproex sodium delayed-release-treated patients and at a greater incidence for placebo than for divalproex sodium delayed-release: flu syndrome and pharyngitis. The following additional adverse reactions were reported by greater than 1% but not more than 5% of the 202 valproate-treated patients in the controlled clinical trials: Body as a Whole: Chest pain. Cardiovascular System: Vasodilatation. Digestive System: Constipation, dry mouth, flatulence and stomatitis. Hemic and Lymphatic System: Ecchymosis. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Peripheral edema. Musculoskeletal System: Leg cramps. Nervous System: Abnormal dreams, confusion, paresthesia, speech disorder and thinking abnormalities. Respiratory System: Dyspnea and sinusitis. Skin and Appendages: Pruritus. Urogenital System: Metrorrhagia. 6.4 Post-Marketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of divalproex sodium delayed-release. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Dermatologic: Hair texture changes, hair color changes, photosensitivity, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Psychiatric: Emotional upset, psychosis, aggression, psychomotor hyperactivity, hostility, disturbance in attention, learning disorder and behavioral deterioration. Neurologic: There have been several reports of acute or subacute cognitive decline and behavioral changes (apathy or irritability) with cerebral pseudoatrophy on imaging associated with valproate therapy; both the cognitive/behavioral changes and cerebral pseudoatrophy reversed partially or fully after valproate discontinuation. Musculoskeletal: Fractures, decreased bone mineral density, osteopenia, osteoporosis and weakness. Hematologic: Relative lymphocytosis, macrocytosis, leukopenia, anemia including macrocytic with or without folate deficiency, bone marrow suppression, pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis and acute intermittent porphyria. Endocrine: Irregular menses, secondary amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, elevated testosterone level, breast enlargement, galactorrhea, parotid gland swelling, polycystic ovary disease, decrease carnitine concentrations, hyponatremia, hyperglycinemia and inappropriate ADH secretion. There have been rare reports of Fanconi's syndrome occurring chiefly in children. Genitourinary: Enuresis and urinary tract infection. Special Senses: Hearing loss. Other: Allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, developmental delay, bone pain, bradycardia and cutaneous vasculitis.