Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: Monitor patients for clinical worsening and suicidal thinking or behavior (5.1). Serotonin Syndrome: Serotonin syndrome has been reported with SSRIs and SNRIs, both when taken alone, but especially when co-administered with other serotonergic agents (including triptans, tricyclics, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone and St. John's Wort). If such symptoms occur, discontinue FETZIMA and initiate supportive treatment. If concomitant use of FETZIMA with other serotonergic drugs is clinically warranted, patients should be made aware of a potential increased risk for serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases (5.2). Elevated Blood Pressure and Heart Rate: Measure heart rate and blood pressure prior to initiating treatment and periodically throughout treatment. Control pre-existing hypertension before initiating therapy with FETZIMA (5.3, 5.4). Abnormal Bleeding: Treatment can increase the risk of bleeding. Caution patients about the risk of bleeding associated with the use of NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation (5.5). Angle Closure Glaucoma: Angle closure glaucoma has occurred in patients with untreated anatomically narrow angles treated with antidepressants (5.6). Urinary Hesitation or Retention: Can occur. If such symptoms occur, discontinue FETZIMA or consider other appropriate medical intervention (5.7). Activation of Mania/Hypomania: Screen patients for bipolar disorder, Caution patients about risk of activation of mania/hypomania (5.8). Seizures: Can occur. Use with caution in patients with a seizure disorder (5.9). Discontinuation Syndrome: Taper dose when possible and monitor for discontinuation symptoms (5.10). Hyponatremia: Can occur in association with SIADH (5.11). 5.1 Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a longstanding concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phase of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled studies of antidepressant drugs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18-24) with MDD and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled studies in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term studies of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo controlled studies in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term studies (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug vs. placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1 . Table 1 Age Range Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality per 1000 Patients Treated Increases Compared to Placebo <18 14 additional cases 18-24 5 additional cases Decreases Compared to Placebo 25-64 1 fewer case ≥65 6 fewer cases No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric studies. There were suicides in the adult studies, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide. It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance studies in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression. All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases. The following symptoms: anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality. Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms. If the decision has been made to discontinue treatment, medication should be tapered, as rapidly as is feasible, but with recognition that abrupt discontinuation can be associated with certain symptoms [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.10) for a description of the risks of discontinuation of FETZIMA]. Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to healthcare providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for FETZIMA should be written for the smallest quantity of capsules consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose. Screening patients for bipolar disorder A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled studies) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression. It should be noted that FETZIMA is not approved for use in treating bipolar depression. 5.2 Serotonin Syndrome The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs, alone but particularly with concomitant use of other serotonergic drugs (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, and St. John's Wort) and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (in particular, MAOIs, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue). Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. The concomitant use of FETZIMA with MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders is contraindicated. FETZIMA should also not be started in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. All reports with methylene blue that provided information on the route of administration involved intravenous administration in the dose range of 1 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg. No reports involved the administration of methylene blue by other routes (such as oral tablets or local tissue injection) or at lower doses. There may be circumstances when it is necessary to initiate treatment with a MAOI such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue in a patient taking FETZIMA. FETZIMA should be discontinued before initiating treatment with the MAOI [ see Dosage and Administration (2.5, 2.6) and Contraindications (4)]. If concomitant use of FETZIMA with other serotonergic drugs, including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, tryptophan, and St. John's Wort is clinically warranted, patients should be made aware of a potential increased risk for serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. Treatment with FETZIMA and any concomitant serotonergic agents, should be discontinued immediately if the above events occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated. 5.3 Elevated Blood Pressure SNRIs, including FETZIMA, have been associated with increases in blood pressure. Blood pressure should be measured prior to initiating treatment and periodically throughout FETZIMA treatment. Pre-existing hypertension should be controlled before initiating treatment with FETZIMA. Caution should be exercised in treating patients with pre-existing hypertension, cardiovascular, or cerebrovascular conditions that might be compromised by increases in blood pressure. For patients who experience a sustained increase in blood pressure while receiving FETZIMA, discontinuation or other appropriate medical intervention should be considered. Table 2 shows the mean changes in blood pressure, sustained hypertension, and upward shifts in hypertensive status that were observed in FETZIMA-treated patients in the short-term placebo-controlled studies. Table 2 Blood Pressure Mean Changes, Sustained Hypertension, and Upward Shifts in Hypertensive Status a Normal Blood Pressure: SBP < 120 mm Hg and DBP < 80 mm Hg Pre-hypertension: SBP ≥ 120 mm Hg and ≤ 139 mm Hg or DBP ≥ 80 mm Hg and ≤ 89 mm Hg Stage I hypertension: SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg and ≤ 159 mm Hg or DBP ≥ 90 mm Hg and ≤ 99 mm Hg Stage II hypertension: SBP ≥ 160 mm Hg or DBP ≥ 100 mm Hg Placebo FETZIMA 40-120 mg/day Mean change from baseline to end of treatment, mm Hg Systolic blood pressure (SBP) -0.4 3.0 Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) -0.0 3.2 Sustained Hypertension, % of patients Broad Criteria: SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg and an increase ≥15 mm Hg OR DBP ≥ 90 mm Hg and an increase ≥ 10 mm Hg for at least 3 consecutive visits 1.2 1.8 Strict Criteria: SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg and an increase ≥15 mm Hg AND DBP ≥ 90 mm Hg and an increase ≥ 10 mm Hg for at least 3 consecutive visits 0.1 0.3 Upward Shifts in Hypertensive Statusa, % of patients Normal/ Pre-hypertensive → Stage I/ Stage II 7.1 10.4 In the short-term, placebo-controlled MDD studies, the mean increase from initiation of treatment in systolic BP was 3 mm Hg and diastolic BP was 3.2 mm Hg, as compared to no change in the placebo group. There were no dose-related changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure observed. In patients exposed to one-year, open-label treatment of FETZIMA (doses range from 40-120 mg once daily), the mean change from initiation of treatment in systolic BP was 3.9 mm Hg and diastolic BP was 3.1 mm Hg. In the short-term, placebo-controlled studies, 11.6 % of patients met orthostatic hypotension criteria (SBP or DBP) in the FETZIMA group compared to 9.7% in the placebo group. Orthostatic reductions of blood pressure ≥ 10 mm Hg in DBP occurred in 5.8%, 6.1% and 9.8% of FETZIMA-treated patients with doses of 40, 80 and 120 mg/day respectively, compared to 6.2% of placebo-treated patients. Concomitant use of FETZIMA with drugs that increase blood pressure and heart rate has not been evaluated and such combinations should be used with caution. Effects of FETZIMA on blood pressure in patients with significant hypertension or cardiac disease have not been systematically evaluated. FETZIMA should be used with caution in these patients. 5.4 Elevated Heart Rate SNRIs including FETZIMA have been associated with increased heart rate. Heart rate should be measured prior to initiating treatment and periodically throughout FETZIMA treatment. Pre-existing tachyarrhythmias and other cardiac disease should be treated before starting therapy with FETZIMA. For patients who experience a sustained increase in heart rate while receiving FETZIMA, discontinuation or other appropriate medical intervention should be considered. In short-term clinical studies, FETZIMA treatment was associated with a mean increase in heart rate of 7.4 beats per minute (bpm) compared to a mean decrease of 0.3 bpm in placebo-treated patients. Heart rate increase in FETZIMA-treated patients receiving doses of 40 mg, 80 mg and 120 mg was 7.2, 7.2, and 9.1 bpm. FETZIMA has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a cardiac rhythm disorder. 5.5 Abnormal Bleeding SSRIs and SNRIs, including FETZIMA, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), warfarin, and other anticoagulants may add to this risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding events related to SSRIs and SNRIs have ranged from ecchymosis, hematoma, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages. Patients should be cautioned about the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of FETZIMA and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation or bleeding. 5.6 Angle Closure Glaucoma The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including FETZIMA may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy. 5.7 Urinary Hesitation or Retention The noradrenergic effect of SNRIs including FETZIMA, can affect urethral resistance. In the controlled short-term studies, urinary hesitation occurred in 4%, 5% and 6% of FETZIMA-treated patients receiving doses of 40, 80 and 120 mg, respectively, compared to no patients in the placebo group. Caution is advised in the use of FETZIMA in patients prone to obstructive urinary disorders. If symptoms of urinary hesitation, urinary retention, or dysuria develop during treatment with FETZIMA, consideration should be given to the possibility that they might be drug-related, and discontinuation or other appropriate medical intervention should be considered. 5.8 Activation of Mania/Hypomania Symptoms of mania/hypomania were reported in 0.2% of FETZIMA-treated patients and 0.2% of placebo-treated patients in clinical studies. Activation of mania/hypomania has also been reported in a small proportion of patients with mood disorders who were treated with other antidepressants. As with all antidepressants, use FETZIMA cautiously in patients with a history or family history of bipolar disorder, mania, or hypomania. 5.9 Seizures FETZIMA has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a seizure disorder. Patients with a history of seizures were excluded from clinical studies. FETZIMA should be prescribed with caution in patients with a seizure disorder. One case of seizure has been reported in pre-marketing clinical studies with FETZIMA. 5.10 Discontinuation Syndrome There have been reports of adverse events occurring upon discontinuation of serotonergic antidepressants, particularly when discontinuation is abrupt, including the following: dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesia, such as electric shock sensations), anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, hypomania, tinnitus, and seizures. While these events are generally self-limiting, there have been reports of serious discontinuation symptoms. Monitor patients for these symptoms when discontinuing FETZIMA. Reduce the dose gradually whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, consider resuming the previously prescribed dose. Subsequently, the dose may be decreased, but at a more gradual rate [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. 5.11 Hyponatremia Although no adverse events of hyponatremia were reported for FETZIMA-treated patients in the clinical studies, hyponatremia has occurred as a result of treatment with SSRIs and SNRIs. In many cases, hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Cases with serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with SSRIs and SNRIs. Also, patients taking diuretics or who are otherwise volume depleted can be at greater risk. FETZIMA should be discontinued in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia and appropriate medical intervention should be instituted. Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which can lead to falls. Signs and symptoms associated with more severe and/or acute cases have included hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death.