1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Lansoprazole deleyed-release capsules USP are proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Refer to DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION table (below) for indications and usage. (1) 1.1 Short-Term Treatment of Active Duodenal Ulcer Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules USP are indicated for short-term treatment (for 4 weeks) for healing and symptom relief of active duodenal ulcer [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 1.2 H. pylori Eradication to Reduce the Risk of Duodenal Ulcer Recurrence Triple Therapy: lansoprazole/amoxicillin/clarithromycin Lansoprazole in combination with amoxicillin plus clarithromycin as triple therapy is indicated for the treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or one-year history of a duodenal ulcer) to eradicate H. pylori. Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Please refer to the full prescribing information for amoxicillin and clarithromycin. Dual Therapy: lansoprazole/amoxicillin Lansoprazole in combination with amoxicillin as dual therapy is indicated for the treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or one-year history of a duodenal ulcer) who are either allergic or intolerant to clarithromycin or in whom resistance to clarithromycin is known or suspected (see the clarithromycin package insert, MICROBIOLOGY section). Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Please refer to the full prescribing information for amoxicillin. 1.3 Maintenance of Healed Duodenal Ulcers Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules USP are indicated to maintain healing of duodenal ulcers. Controlled studies do not extend beyond 12 months [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 1.4 Short-Term Treatment of Active Benign Gastric Ulcer Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules USP are indicated for short-term treatment (up to 8 weeks) for healing and symptom relief of active benign gastric ulcer [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 1.5 Healing of NSAID-Associated Gastric Ulcer Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules USP are indicated for the treatment of NSAID-associated gastric ulcer in patients who continue NSAID use. Controlled studies did not extend beyond 8 weeks [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 1.6 Risk Reduction of NSAID-Associated Gastric Ulcer Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules USP are indicated for reducing the risk of NSAID-associated gastric ulcers in patients with a history of a documented gastric ulcer who require the use of an NSAID. Controlled studies did not extend beyond 12 weeks [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 1.7 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Short-Term Treatment of Symptomatic GERD Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules USP are indicated for the treatment of heartburn and other symptoms associated with GERD [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Short-Term Treatment of Erosive Esophagitis Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules USP are indicated for short-term treatment (up to 8 weeks) for healing and symptom relief of all grades of erosive esophagitis. For patients who do not heal with lansoprazole for 8 weeks (5 to 10%), it may be helpful to give an additional 8 weeks of treatment. If there is a recurrence of erosive esophagitis an additional 8-week course of lansoprazole may be considered [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 1.8 Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis (EE) Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules USP are indicated to maintain healing of erosive esophagitis. Controlled studies did not extend beyond 12 months [see Clinical Studies (14)]. 1.9 Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions Including Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules USP are indicated for the long-term treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions, including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome [see Clinical Studies (14)].
| Indication || Dose || Frequency |
| Duodenal Ulcers (1.1, 1.3) |
|Short-Term Treatment ||15 mg ||Once daily for 4 wks |
|Maintenance of Healed ||15 mg ||Once daily |
| H. pylori Eradication to Reduce Recurrence of Duodenal Ulcer (1.2) |
|Triple Therapy: Lansoprazole Amoxicillin Clarithromycin ||30 mg 1 gram 500 mg ||Twice daily for 10 or 14 days |
|Dual Therapy: Lansoprazole Amoxicillin ||30 mg 1 gram ||Three times daily for 14 days |
| Benign Gastric Ulcer (1.4) |
|Short-Term Treatment ||30 mg ||Once daily up to 8 wks |
| NSAID-associated Gastric Ulcer (1.6) |
|Healing ||30 mg ||Once daily for 8 wks |
|Risk Reduction ||15 mg ||Once daily up to 12 wks |
| GERD (1.7) |
|Short-Term Treatment of Symptomatic GERD ||15 mg ||Once daily up to 8 wks |
|Short-Term Treatment of EE ||30 mg ||Once daily up to 8 wks |
| Pediatric (8.4) |
|(1 to 11 years of age) Short-Term Treatment of Symptomatic GERD and Short-Term Treatment of EE |
|≤30 kg ||15 mg ||Once daily up to 12 wks |
|> 30 kg ||30 mg ||Once daily up to 12 wks |
|(12 to 17 years of age) Short-Term Treatment of Symptomatic GERD |
|Nonerosive GERD ||15 mg ||Once daily up to 8 wks |
|EE ||30 mg ||Once daily up to 8 wks |
| Maintenance of Healing of EE (1.8) ||15 mg ||Once daily |
| Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions (i.e., ZES) (1.9) ||60 mg ||Once daily |
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS 15 mg capsules are opaque, size ‘3’, hard gelatin, colored pink and green with “923” imprinted in black ink on cap and body, containing off white to light gray pellets. 30 mg capsules are opaque, size ‘1’, hard gelatin, colored pink and black with “924” imprinted in white ink on cap and body, containing off white to light gray pellets. Capsules: 15 mg and 30 mg. (3)
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Lansoprazole delayed-release capsules are contraindicated in patients with known severe hypersensitivity to any component of the formulation of lansoprazole delayed-release capsules. For information about contraindications of antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated in combination with lansoprazole, refer to the CONTRAINDICATIONS section of their package inserts. Contraindicated in patients with known severe hypersensitivity to any component of the lansoprazole formulation. (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Symptomatic response with lansoprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. (5.1) PPI therapy may be associated with increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea. (5.2) Bone Fracture: Long-term and multiple daily dose PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist or spine. (5.3) Hypomagnesemia has been reported rarely with prolonged treatment with PPIs. (5.4) 5.1 Gastric Malignancy Symptomatic response to therapy with lansoprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. 5.2 Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea Published observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy like lansoprazole delayed-release capsules may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD), especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. CDAD has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents. For more information specific to antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated for use in combination with lansoprazole, refer to WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections of those package inserts. 5.3 Bone Fracture Several published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the conditions being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. 5.4 Hypomagnesemia Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI. For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. 5.5 Concomitant Use of Lansoprazole with Methotrexate Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration, a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see Drug Interactions (7.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Most commonly reported adverse reactions (≥1%): diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea and constipation. (6) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact CARACO Pharmaceutical Laboratories Ltd. at 1-800-818-4555 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Worldwide, over 10,000 patients have been treated with lansoprazole in Phase 2 or Phase 3 clinical trials involving various dosages and durations of treatment. In general, lansoprazole treatment has been well-tolerated in both short-term and long-term trials. Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. The following adverse reactions were reported by the treating physician to have a possible or probable relationship to drug in 1% or more of lansoprazole-treated patients and occurred at a greater rate in lansoprazole-treated patients than placebo-treated patients in Table 1. Table 1: Incidence of Possibly or Probably Treatment-Related Adverse Reactions in Short-Term, Placebo-Controlled Lansoprazole Studies Body System/Adverse Event Lansoprazole (N= 2768) % Placebo (N= 1023) % Body as a Whole Abdominal Pain 2.1 1.2 Digestive System Constipation 1 0.4 Diarrhea 3.8 2.3 Nausea 1.3 1.2 Headache was also seen at greater than 1% incidence but was more common on placebo. The incidence of diarrhea was similar between patients who received placebo and patients who received 15 mg and 30 mg of lansoprazole, but higher in the patients who received 60 mg of lansoprazole (2.9%, 1.4%, 4.2%, and 7.4%, respectively). The most commonly reported possibly or probably treatment-related adverse event during maintenance therapy was diarrhea. In the risk reduction study of lansoprazole for NSAID-associated gastric ulcers, the incidence of diarrhea for patients treated with lansoprazole, misoprostol, and placebo was 5%, 22%, and 3%, respectively. Another study for the same indication, where patients took either a COX-2 inhibitor or lansoprazole and naproxen, demonstrated that the safety profile was similar to the prior study. Additional reactions from this study not previously observed in other clinical trials with lansoprazole included contusion, duodenitis, epigastric discomfort, esophageal disorder, fatigue, hunger, hiatal hernia, hoarseness, impaired gastric emptying, metaplasia, and renal impairment. Additional adverse experiences occurring in less than 1% of patients or subjects who received lansoprazole in domestic trials are shown below: Body as a Whole – abdomen enlarged, allergic reaction, asthenia, back pain, candidiasis, carcinoma, chest pain (not otherwise specified), chills, edema, fever, flu syndrome, halitosis, infection (not otherwise specified), malaise, neck pain, neck rigidity, pain, pelvic pain Cardiovascular System – angina, arrhythmia, bradycardia, cerebrovascular accident/cerebral infarction, hypertension/hypotension, migraine, myocardial infarction, palpitations, shock (circulatory failure), syncope, tachycardia, vasodilation Digestive System – abnormal stools, anorexia, bezoar, cardiospasm, cholelithiasis, colitis, dry mouth, dyspepsia, dysphagia, enteritis, eructation, esophageal stenosis, esophageal ulcer, esophagitis, fecal discoloration, flatulence, gastric nodules/fundic gland polyps, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal anomaly, gastrointestinal disorder, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, glossitis, gum hemorrhage, hematemesis, increased appetite, increased salivation, melena, mouth ulceration, nausea and vomiting, nausea and vomiting and diarrhea, gastrointestinal moniliasis, rectal disorder, rectal hemorrhage, stomatitis, tenesmus, thirst, tongue disorder, ulcerative colitis, ulcerative stomatitis Endocrine System - diabetes mellitus, goiter, hypothyroidism Hemic and Lymphatic System – anemia, hemolysis, lymphadenopathy Metabolism and Nutritional Disorders – avitaminosis, gout, dehydration, hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia, peripheral edema, weight gain/loss Musculoskeletal System – arthralgia, arthritis, bone disorder, joint disorder, leg cramps, musculoskeletal pain, myalgia, myasthenia, ptosis, synovitis Nervous System – abnormal dreams, agitation, amnesia, anxiety, apathy, confusion, convulsion, dementia, depersonalization, depression, diplopia, dizziness, emotional lability, hallucinations, hemiplegia, hostility aggravated, hyperkinesia, hypertonia, hypesthesia, insomnia, libido decreased/increased, nervousness, neurosis, paresthesia, sleep disorder, somnolence, thinking abnormality, tremor, vertigo Respiratory System – asthma, bronchitis, cough increased, dyspnea, epistaxis, hemoptysis, hiccup, laryngeal neoplasia, lung fibrosis, pharyngitis, pleural disorder, pneumonia, respiratory disorder, upper respiratory inflammation/infection, rhinitis, sinusitis, stridor Skin and Appendages – acne, alopecia, contact dermatitis, dry skin, fixed eruption, hair disorder, maculopapular rash, nail disorder, pruritus, rash, skin carcinoma, skin disorder, sweating, urticaria Special Senses – abnormal vision, amblyopia, blepharitis, blurred vision, cataract, conjunctivitis, deafness, dry eyes, ear/eye disorder, eye pain, glaucoma, otitis media, parosmia, photophobia, retinal degeneration/disorder, taste loss, taste perversion, tinnitus, visual field defect Urogenital System – abnormal menses, breast enlargement, breast pain, breast tenderness, dysmenorrhea, dysuria, gynecomastia, impotence, kidney calculus, kidney pain, leukorrhea, menorrhagia, menstrual disorder, penis disorder, polyuria, testis disorder, urethral pain, urinary frequency, urinary retention, urinary tract infection, urinary urgency, urination impaired, vaginitis. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience Additional adverse experiences have been reported since lansoprazole has been marketed. The majority of these cases are foreign-sourced and a relationship to lansoprazole has not been established. Because these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events are listed below by COSTART body system. Body as a Whole – anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions; Digestive System -hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis, vomiting; Hemic and Lymphatic System – agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; Infections and Infestations – Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea; Metabolism and Nutritional Disorders – hypomagnesemia; Musculoskeletal System -bone fracture, myositis; Skin and Appendages – severe dermatologic reactions including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal); Special Senses - speech disorder; Urogenital System – interstitial nephritis, urinary retention. 6.3 Combination Therapy with Amoxicillin and Clarithromycin In clinical trials using combination therapy with lansoprazole plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin, and lansoprazole plus amoxicillin, no adverse reactions peculiar to these drug combinations were observed. Adverse reactions that have occurred have been limited to those that had been previously reported with lansoprazole, amoxicillin, or clarithromycin. Triple Therapy: lansoprazole/amoxicillin/clarithromycin The most frequently reported adverse reactions for patients who received triple therapy for 14 days were diarrhea (7%), headache (6%), and taste perversion (5%). There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of reported adverse reactions between the 10- and 14-day triple therapy regimens. No treatment-emergent adverse reactions were observed at significantly higher rates with triple therapy than with any dual therapy regimen. Dual Therapy: lansoprazole/amoxicillin The most frequently reported adverse reactions for patients who received lansoprazole three times daily plus amoxicillin three times daily dual therapy were diarrhea (8%) and headache (7%). No treatment-emergent adverse reactions were observed at significantly higher rates with lansoprazole three times daily plus amoxicillin three times daily dual therapy than with lansoprazole alone. For information about adverse reactions with antibacterial agents (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) indicated in combination with lansoprazole, refer to the ADVERSE REACTIONS section of their package inserts. 6.4 Laboratory Values The following changes in laboratory parameters in patients who received lansoprazole were reported as adverse reactions: Abnormal liver function tests, increased SGOT (AST), increased SGPT (ALT), increased creatinine, increased alkaline phosphatase, increased globulins, increased GGTP, increased/decreased/abnormal WBC, abnormal AG ratio, abnormal RBC, bilirubinemia, blood potassium increased, blood urea increased, crystal urine present, eosinophilia, hemoglobin decreased, hyperlipemia, increased/decreased electrolytes, increased/decreased cholesterol, increased glucocorticoids, increased LDH, increased/decreased/abnormal platelets, increased gastrin levels and positive fecal occult blood. Urine abnormalities such as albuminuria, glycosuria, and hematuria were also reported. Additional isolated laboratory abnormalities were reported. In the placebo controlled studies, when SGOT (AST) and SGPT (ALT) were evaluated, 0.4% (4/978) and 0.4% (11/2677) patients, who received placebo and lansoprazole, respectively, had enzyme elevations greater than three times the upper limit of normal range at the final treatment visit. None of these patients who received lansoprazole reported jaundice at any time during the study. In clinical trials using combination therapy with lansoprazole plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin, and lansoprazole plus amoxicillin, no increased laboratory abnormalities particular to these drug combinations were observed. For information about laboratory value changes with antibacterial agents (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) indicated in combination with lansoprazole, refer to the ADVERSE REACTIONS section of their package inserts.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Atazanavir: Do not coadminister with atazanavir. (7.1) Drugs with pH-Dependent Absorption:May interfere with the absorption of drugs where gastric pH is important for bioavailability. (7.1) Warfarin: Concomitant warfarin use may require monitoring for increases in INR and prothrombin time. (7.2) Tacrolimus:Concomitant tacrolimus use may increase tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. (7.3) Theophylline:Titration of theophylline dosage may be required when concomitant lansoprazole use is started or stopped. (7.4) Methotrexate: Lansoprazole may increase serum levels of methotrexate. (7.6) 7.1 Drugs with pH-Dependent Absorption Kinetics Lansoprazole causes long-lasting inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Lansoprazole and other PPIs are likely to substantially decrease the systemic concentrations of the HIV protease inhibitor atazanavir, which is dependent upon the presence of gastric acid for absorption, and may result in a loss of therapeutic effect of atazanavir and the development of HIV resistance. Therefore, lansoprazole and other PPIs should not be coadministered with atazanavir [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Lansoprazole and other PPIs may interfere with the absorption of other drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of oral bioavailability (e.g., ampicillin esters, digoxin, iron salts, ketoconazole) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 7.2 Warfarin In a study of healthy subjects, coadministration of single or multiple 60 mg doses of lansoprazole and warfarin did not affect the pharmacokinetics of warfarin nor prothrombin time [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. However, there have been reports of increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving PPIs and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with PPIs and warfarin concomitantly may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 7.3 Tacrolimus Concomitant administration of lansoprazole and tacrolimus may increase whole blood levels of tacrolimus, especially in transplant patients who are intermediate or poor metabolizers of CYP2C19. 7.4 Theophylline A minor increase (10%) in the clearance of theophylline was observed following the administration of lansoprazole concomitantly with theophylline. Although the magnitude of the effect on theophylline clearance is small, individual patients may require additional titration of their theophylline dosage when lansoprazole is started or stopped to ensure clinically effective blood levels [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 7.5 Clopidogrel Concomitant administration of lansoprazole and clopidogrel in healthy subjects had no clinically important effect on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel or clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. No dose adjustment of clopidogrel is necessary when administered with an approved dose of lansoprazole. 7.6 Methotrexate Case reports, published population pharmacokinetic studies, and retrospective analyses suggest that concomitant administration of PPIs and methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate. However, no formal drug interaction studies of high dose methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. In a study of rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving low-dose methotrexate, lansoprazole and naproxen, no effect on pharmacokinetics of methotrexate was observed [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 7.7 Combination Therapy with Clarithromycin Concomitant administration of clarithromycin with other drugs can lead to serious adverse reactions due to drug interactions [see Warnings and Precautions in prescribing information for clarithromycin]. Because of these drug interactions, clarithromycin is contraindicated for coadministration with certain drugs [see Contraindications in prescribing information for clarithromycin]. For information about drug interactions of antibacterial agents (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) indicated in combination with lansoprazole, refer to the DRUG INTERACTIONS section of their package inserts.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Consider dose adjustment in patients with severe liver impairment. (8.7) Lansoprazole is not effective in patients with symptomatic GERD 1 month to less than 1 year of age. (8.4) 8.1 Pregnancy Teratogenic effects Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies have been performed in pregnant rats at oral doses up to 40 times the recommended human dose and in pregnant rabbits at oral doses up to 16 times the recommended human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to lansoprazole. There are, however, no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)]. See full prescribing information for clarithromycin before using in pregnant women. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Lansoprazole or its metabolites are excreted in the milk of rats. It is not known whether lansoprazole is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from lansoprazole, and because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for lansoprazole in rat carcinogenicity studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue lansoprazole, taking into account the importance of lansoprazole to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of lansoprazole have been established in pediatric patients 1 to 17 years of age for short-term treatment of symptomatic GERD and erosive esophagitis, however, lansoprazole was not effective in patients with symptomatic GERD 1 month to less than 1 year of age in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Neonate to less than 1 year of age The pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole were studied in pediatric patients with GERD aged less than 28 days and 1 to 11 months. Compared to healthy adults receiving 30 mg, neonates had higher exposure (mean weight-based normalized AUC values 2.04- and 1.88-fold higher at doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day and 1 mg/kg/day, respectively). Infants aged ≤10 weeks had clearance and exposure values that were similar to neonates. Infants aged greater than 10 weeks who received 1 mg/kg/day had mean AUC values that were similar to adults who received a 30 mg dose. Lansoprazole was not found to be effective in a U.S. and Polish 4 week multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 162 patients between one month and less than 12 months of age with symptomatic GERD based on a medical history of crying/fussing/irritability associated with feedings who had not responded to conservative GERD management (i.e., non-pharmacologic intervention) for 7 to 14 days. Patients received lansoprazole as a suspension daily (0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg/day in infants ≤10 weeks of age or 1 to 1.5 mg/kg/day in infants greater than 10 weeks or placebo) for up to 4 weeks of double-blind treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was assessed by greater than 50% reduction from baseline in either the percent of feedings with a crying/fussing/irritability episode or the duration (minutes) of a crying/fussing/irritability episode within one hour after feeding. There was no difference in the percentage of responders between the lansoprazole pediatric suspension group and placebo group (54% in both groups). There were no adverse events reported in pediatric clinical studies (1 month to less than 12 months of age) that were not previously observed in adults. Based on the results of the Phase 3 efficacy study, lansoprazole was not shown to be effective. Therefore, these results do not support the use of lansoprazole in treating symptomatic GERD in infants. One to 11 years of age In an uncontrolled, open-label, U.S. multicenter study, 66 pediatric patients (1 to 11 years of age) with GERD were assigned, based on body weight, to receive an initial dose of either lansoprazole 15 mg daily if ≤ 30 kg or lansoprazole 30 mg daily if greater than 30 kg administered for 8 to 12 weeks. The lansoprazole dose was increased (up to 30 mg twice daily) in 24 of 66 pediatric patients after 2 or more weeks of treatment if they remained symptomatic. At baseline 85% of patients had mild to moderate overall GERD symptoms (assessed by investigator interview), 58% had non-erosive GERD and 42% had erosive esophagitis (assessed by endoscopy). After 8 to 12 weeks of lansoprazole treatment, the intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated an approximate 50% reduction in frequency and severity of GERD symptoms. Twenty-one of 27 erosive esophagitis patients were healed at 8 weeks and 100% of patients were healed at 12 weeks by endoscopy (Table 2). Table 2: GERD Symptom Improvement and Erosive Esophagitis Healing Rates in Pediatric Patients Age 1 to 11 GERD Final VisitAt Week 8 or Week 12 % (n/N) Symptomatic GERD Improvement in Overall GERD SymptomsSymptoms assessed by patients diary kept by caregiver. 76% (47/62No data were available for 4 pediatric patients.) Erosive Esophagitis Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms 81% (22/27) Healing Rate 100% (27/27) In a study of 66 pediatric patients in the age group 1 year to 11 years old after treatment with lansoprazole given orally in doses of 15 mg daily to 30 mg twice daily, increases in serum gastrin levels were similar to those observed in adult studies. Median fasting serum gastrin levels increased 89% from 51 pg/mL at baseline to 97 pg/mL [interquartile range (25th to 75th percentile) of 71 to 130 pg/mL] at the final visit. The pediatric safety of lansoprazole delayed-release capsules has been assessed in 66 pediatric patients aged 1 to 11 years of age. Of the 66 patients with GERD 85% (56/66) took lansoprazole for 8 weeks and 15% (10/66) took it for 12 weeks. The most frequently reported (2 or more patients) treatment-related adverse reactions in patients 1 to 11 years of age (N=66) were constipation (5%) and headache (3%). Twelve to 17 years of age In an uncontrolled, open-label, U.S. multicenter study, 87 adolescent patients (12 to 17 years of age) with symptomatic GERD were treated with lansoprazole for 8 to 12 weeks. Baseline upper endoscopies classified these patients into two groups: 64 (74%) nonerosive GERD and 23 (26%) erosive esophagitis (EE). The nonerosive GERD patients received lansoprazole 15 mg daily for 8 weeks and the EE patients received lansoprazole 30 mg daily for 8 to 12 weeks. At baseline, 89% of these patients had mild to moderate overall GERD symptoms (assessed by investigator interviews). During 8 weeks of lansoprazole treatment, adolescent patients experienced a 63% reduction in frequency and a 69% reduction in severity of GERD symptoms based on diary results. Twenty-one of 22 (95.5%) adolescent erosive esophagitis patients were healed after 8 weeks of lansoprazole treatment. One patient remained unhealed after 12 weeks of treatment (Table 3). Table 3: GERD Symptom Improvement and Erosive Esophagitis Healing Rates in Pediatric Patients Age 12 to 17 GERD Final Visit % (n/N) Symptomatic GERD (All Patients) Improvement in Overall GERD SymptomsSymptoms assessed by patient diary (parents/caregivers as necessary). 73.2% (60/82)No data available for 5 patients. Nonerosive GERD Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms 71.2% (42/59) Erosive Esophagitis Improvement in Overall GERD Symptoms 78.3% (18/23) Healing RateData from one healed patient was excluded from this analysis due to timing of final endoscopy. 95.5% (21/22) In these 87 adolescent patients, increases in serum gastrin levels were similar to those observed in adult studies, median fasting serum gastrin levels increased 42% from 45 pg/mL at baseline to 64 pg/mL [interquartile range (25th to 75th percentile) of 44 to 88 pg/mL] at the final visit. (Normal serum gastrin levels are 25 to 111 pg/mL.) The safety of lansoprazole delayed-release capsules has been assessed in these 87 adolescent patients. Of the 87 adolescent patients with GERD, 6% (5/87) took lansoprazole for less than 6 weeks, 93% (81/87) for 6 to 10 weeks, and 1% (1/87) for greater than 10 weeks. The most frequently reported (at least 3%) treatment-related adverse reactions in these patients were headache (7%), abdominal pain (5%), nausea (3%) and dizziness (3%). Treatment-related dizziness, reported in this package insert as occurring in less than 1% of adult patients, was reported in this study by 3 adolescent patients with nonerosive GERD, who had dizziness concurrently with other reactions (such as migraine, dyspnea, and vomiting). 8.5 Geriatric Use No dosage adjustment of lansoprazole is necessary in geriatric patients. The incidence rates of lansoprazole-associated adverse reactions and laboratory test abnormalities are similar to those seen in younger patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.6 Renal Impairment No dosage adjustment of lansoprazole is necessary in patients with renal impairment. The pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole in patients with various degrees of renal impairment were not substantially different compared to those in subjects with normal renal function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment In patients with various degrees of chronic hepatic impairment, an increase in the mean AUC of up to 500% was observed at steady state compared to healthy subjects. Consider dose reduction in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.8 Gender Over 4,000 women were treated with lansoprazole. Ulcer healing rates in females were similar to those in males. The incidence rates of adverse reactions in females were similar to those seen in males [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.9 Race The pooled mean pharmacokinetic parameters of lansoprazole from twelve U.S. Phase 1 studies (N=513) were compared to the mean pharmacokinetic parameters from two Asian studies (N=20). The mean AUCs of lansoprazole in Asian subjects were approximately twice those seen in pooled U.S. data; however, the inter-individual variability was high. The Cmax values were comparable.