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Lovenox Prescribing Information

This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Lovenox safely and effectively. Before taking Lovenox please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Lovenox.

Warning

WARNING: SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMAS Epidural or spinal hematomas may occur in patients who are anticoagulated with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) or heparinoids and are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include: Use of indwelling epidural catheters Concomitant use of other drugs that affect hemostasis, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors, other anticoagulants A history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal punctures A history of spinal deformity or spinal surgery Optimal timing between the administration of Lovenox and neuraxial procedures is not known. Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment. If neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment is necessary. Consider the benefits and risks before neuraxial intervention in patients anticoagulated or to be anticoagulated for thromboprophylaxis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Drug Interactions (7) ]. WARNING: SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Epidural or spinal hematomas may occur in patients who are anticoagulated with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) or heparinoids and are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include: Use of indwelling epidural catheters Concomitant use of other drugs that affect hemostasis, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors, other anticoagulants A history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal punctures A history of spinal deformity or spinal surgery Optimal timing between the administration of Lovenox and neuraxial procedures is not known. Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment. If neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment is necessary [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Drug Interactions (7) ].

Recent Changes

Boxed Warning 10/13
Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 ) 10/13

Indications And Usage

Lovenox is a low molecular weight heparin [LMWH] indicated for: Prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in abdominal surgery, hip replacement surgery, knee replacement surgery, or medical patients with severely restricted mobility during acute illness (1.1) Inpatient treatment of acute DVT with or without pulmonary embolism (1.2) Outpatient treatment of acute DVT without pulmonary embolism. (1.2) Prophylaxis of ischemic complications of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction [MI] (1.3) Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] managed medically or with subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI] (1.4) 1.1 Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Lovenox® is indicated for the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE): in patients undergoing abdominal surgery who are at risk for thromboembolic complications [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ]. in patients undergoing hip replacement surgery, during and following hospitalization. in patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. in medical patients who are at risk for thromboembolic complications due to severely restricted mobility during acute illness. 1.2 Treatment of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis Lovenox is indicated for: the inpatient treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, when administered in conjunction with warfarin sodium. the outpatient treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis without pulmonary embolism when administered in conjunction with warfarin sodium. 1.3 Prophylaxis of Ischemic Complications of Unstable Angina and Non-Q-Wave Myocardial Infarction Lovenox is indicated for the prophylaxis of ischemic complications of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, when concurrently administered with aspirin. 1.4 Treatment of Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Lovenox, when administered concurrently with aspirin, has been shown to reduce the rate of the combined endpoint of recurrent myocardial infarction or death in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) receiving thrombolysis and being managed medically or with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

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Dosage And Administration

Indication Dose
DVT prophylaxis in abdominal surgery 40 mg SC once daily
DVT prophylaxis in knee replacement surgery 30 mg SC every 12 hours
DVT prophylaxis in hip replacement surgery 30 mg SC every 12 hours or 40 mg SC once daily
DVT prophylaxis in medical patients 40 mg SC once daily
Inpatient treatment of acute DVT with or without pulmonary embolism 1 mg/kg SC every 12 hours or 1.5 mg/kg SC once daily *
Outpatient treatment of acute DVT without pulmonary embolism 1 mg/kg SC every 12 hours*
Unstable angina and non-Q-wave MI 1 mg/kg SC every 12 hours (with aspirin)
Acute STEMI in patients <75 years of age [For dosing in subsequent PCI, see Dosage and Administration (2.1)] 30 mg single IV bolus plus a 1 mg/kg SC dose followed by 1 mg/kg SC every 12 hours (with aspirin)
Acute STEMI in patients ≥75 years of age 0.75 mg/kg SC every 12 hours (no bolus) (with aspirin)

Dosage Forms And Strengths

Lovenox is available in two concentrations: 100 mg/mL concentration (3.1): Prefilled syringes: 30 mg/0.3 mL, 40 mg/0.4 mL Graduated prefilled syringes: 60 mg/0.6 mL, 80 mg/0.8 mL,100 mg/1 mL Multiple-dose vial: 300 mg/3 mL 150 mg/mL concentration (3.2): Graduated prefilled syringes: 120 mg/0.8 mL, 150 mg/1 mL 3.1 100 mg/mL Concentration -Prefilled Syringes 30 mg/0.3 mL, 40 mg/0.4 mL -Graduated Prefilled Syringes 60 mg/0.6 mL, 80 mg/0.8 mL, 100 mg/1 mL -Multiple-Dose Vials 300 mg/3 mL 3.2 150 mg/mL Concentration -Graduated Prefilled Syringes 120 mg/0.8 mL, 150 mg/1 mL

Contraindications

Active major bleeding Thrombocytopenia associated with a positive in vitro test for anti-platelet antibody in the presence of enoxaparin sodium Known hypersensitivity to enoxaparin sodium (e.g., pruritus, urticaria, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions) [see Adverse Reactions (6.2) ] Known hypersensitivity to heparin or pork products Known hypersensitivity to benzyl alcohol (which is in only the multi-dose formulation of Lovenox) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ] Active major bleeding (4) Thrombocytopenia with a positive in vitro test for anti-platelet antibody in the presence of enoxaparin sodium (4) Hypersensitivity to enoxaparin sodium (4) Hypersensitivity to heparin or pork products (4) Hypersensitivity to benzyl alcohol [for multi-dose formulation only] (4)

Warning and Cautions

Increased risk of hemorrhage: Use with caution in patients at risk (5.1) Percutaneous coronary revascularization: Obtain hemostasis at the puncture site before sheath removal (5.2) Concomitant medical conditions: Use with caution in patients with bleeding diathesis, uncontrolled arterial hypertension or history of recent gastrointestinal ulceration, diabetic retinopathy, renal dysfunction, or hemorrhage (5.3) History of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Use with caution (5.4) Thrombocytopenia: Monitor thrombocytopenia closely (5.5) Interchangeability with other heparins: Do not exchange with heparin or other LMWHs (5.6) Pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves and their fetuses, may be at increased risk and may need more frequent monitoring and dosage adjustment (5.7) 5.1 Increased Risk of Hemorrhage Cases of epidural or spinal hemorrhage and subsequent hematomas have been reported with the use of Lovenox and epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or spinal puncture procedures, resulting in long-term or permanent paralysis. The risk of these events is higher with the use of post-operative indwelling epidural catheters, with the concomitant use of additional drugs affecting hemostasis such as NSAIDs, with traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal puncture, or in patients with a history of spinal surgery or spinal deformity [see Boxed Warning, Adverse Reactions (6.2) and Drug Interactions (7) ]. To reduce the potential risk of bleeding associated with the concurrent use of enoxaparin sodium and epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or spinal puncture, consider the pharmacokinetic profile of enoxaparin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Placement or removal of an epidural catheter or lumbar puncture is best performed when the anticoagulant effect of enoxaparin is low; however, the exact timing to reach a sufficiently low anticoagulant effect in each patient is not known. Placement or removal of a catheter should be delayed for at least 12 hours after administration of lower doses (30 mg once or twice daily or 40 mg once daily) of Lovenox, and at least 24 hours after the administration of higher doses (0.75 mg/kg twice daily, 1 mg/kg twice daily, or 1.5 mg/kg once daily) of Lovenox. Anti-Xa levels are still detectable at these time points, and these delays are not a guarantee that neuraxial hematoma will be avoided. Patients receiving the 0.75 mg/kg twice daily dose or the1 mg/kg twice daily dose should not receive the second enoxaparin dose in the twice daily regimen to allow a longer delay before catheter placement or removal. Likewise, although a specific recommendation for timing of a subsequent Lovenox dose after catheter removal cannot be made, consider delaying this next dose for at least four hours, based on a benefit-risk assessment considering both the risk for thrombosis and the risk for bleeding in the context of the procedure and patient risk factors. For patients with creatinine clearance <30mL/minute, additional considerations are necessary because elimination of enoxaparin is more prolonged; consider doubling the timing of removal of a catheter, at least 24 hours for the lower prescribed dose of Lovenox (30 mg once daily) and at least 48 hours for the higher dose (1 mg/kg/day) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Should the physician decide to administer anticoagulation in the context of epidural or spinal anesthesia/analgesia or lumbar puncture, frequent monitoring must be exercised to detect any signs and symptoms of neurological impairment such as midline back pain, sensory and motor deficits (numbness or weakness in lower limbs), bowel and/or bladder dysfunction. Instruct patients to report immediately if they experience any of the above signs or symptoms. If signs or symptoms of spinal hematoma are suspected, initiate urgent diagnosis and treatment including consideration for spinal cord decompression even though such treatment may not prevent or reverse neurological sequelae. Lovenox should be used with extreme caution in conditions with increased risk of hemorrhage, such as bacterial endocarditis, congenital or acquired bleeding disorders, active ulcerative and angiodysplastic gastrointestinal disease, hemorrhagic stroke, or shortly after brain, spinal, or ophthalmological surgery, or in patients treated concomitantly with platelet inhibitors. Major hemorrhages including retroperitoneal and intracranial bleeding have been reported. Some of these cases have been fatal. Bleeding can occur at any site during therapy with Lovenox. An unexplained fall in hematocrit or blood pressure should lead to a search for a bleeding site. 5.2 Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization Procedures To minimize the risk of bleeding following the vascular instrumentation during the treatment of unstable angina, non-Q-wave myocardial infarction and acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, adhere precisely to the intervals recommended between Lovenox doses. It is important to achieve hemostasis at the puncture site after PCI. In case a closure device is used, the sheath can be removed immediately. If a manual compression method is used, sheath should be removed 6 hours after the last IV/SC Lovenox. If the treatment with enoxaparin sodium is to be continued, the next scheduled dose should be given no sooner than 6 to 8 hours after sheath removal. The site of the procedure should be observed for signs of bleeding or hematoma formation [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) ]. 5.3 Use of Lovenox with Concomitant Medical Conditions Lovenox should be used with care in patients with a bleeding diathesis, uncontrolled arterial hypertension or a history of recent gastrointestinal ulceration, diabetic retinopathy, renal dysfunction and hemorrhage. 5.4 History of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Lovenox should be used with extreme caution in patients with a history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. 5.5 Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia can occur with the administration of Lovenox. Moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet counts between 100,000/mm3 and 50,000/mm3) occurred at a rate of 1.3% in patients given Lovenox, 1.2% in patients given heparin, and 0.7% in patients given placebo in clinical trials. Platelet counts less than 50,000/mm3 occurred at a rate of 0.1% in patients given Lovenox, in 0.2% of patients given heparin, and 0.4% of patients given placebo in the same trials. Thrombocytopenia of any degree should be monitored closely. If the platelet count falls below 100,000/mm3, Lovenox should be discontinued. Cases of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis have also been observed in clinical practice. Some of these cases were complicated by organ infarction, limb ischemia, or death [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]. 5.6 Interchangeability with Other Heparins Lovenox cannot be used interchangeably (unit for unit) with heparin or other low molecular weight heparins as they differ in manufacturing process, molecular weight distribution, anti-Xa and anti-IIa activities, units, and dosage. Each of these medicines has its own instructions for use. 5.7 Pregnant Women with Mechanical Prosthetic Heart Valves The use of Lovenox for thromboprophylaxis in pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves has not been adequately studied. In a clinical study of pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves given enoxaparin (1 mg/kg twice daily) to reduce the risk of thromboembolism, 2 of 8 women developed clots resulting in blockage of the valve and leading to maternal and fetal death. Although a causal relationship has not been established these deaths may have been due to therapeutic failure or inadequate anticoagulation. No patients in the heparin/warfarin group (0 of 4 women) died. There also have been isolated postmarketing reports of valve thrombosis in pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves while receiving enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis. Women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves may be at higher risk for thromboembolism during pregnancy, and, when pregnant, have a higher rate of fetal loss from stillbirth, spontaneous abortion and premature delivery. Therefore, frequent monitoring of peak and trough anti-Factor Xa levels, and adjusting of dosage may be needed [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6) ]. 5.8 Benzyl Alcohol Lovenox multiple-dose vials contain benzyl alcohol as a preservative. The administration of medications containing benzyl alcohol as a preservative to premature neonates has been associated with a fatal "gasping syndrome". Because benzyl alcohol may cross the placenta, Lovenox multiple-dose vials, preserved with benzyl alcohol, should be used with caution in pregnant women and only if clearly needed [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1) ]. 5.9 Laboratory Tests Periodic complete blood counts, including platelet count, and stool occult blood tests are recommended during the course of treatment with Lovenox. When administered at recommended prophylaxis doses, routine coagulation tests such as Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) are relatively insensitive measures of Lovenox activity and, therefore, unsuitable for monitoring. Anti-Factor Xa may be used to monitor the anticoagulant effect of Lovenox in patients with significant renal impairment. If during Lovenox therapy abnormal coagulation parameters or bleeding should occur, anti-Factor Xa levels may be used to monitor the anticoagulant effects of Lovenox [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

Adverse Reactions

Most common adverse reactions (>1%) were bleeding, anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevation of serum aminotransferase, diarrhea, and nausea (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact sanofi-aventis at 1-800-633-1610 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience The following serious adverse reactions are also discussed in other sections of the labeling: Spinal/epidural hematoma [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Increased Risk of Hemorrhage [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Thrombocytopenia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. During clinical development for the approved indications, 15,918 patients were exposed to enoxaparin sodium. These included 1,228 for prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis following abdominal surgery in patients at risk for thromboembolic complications, 1,368 for prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis following hip or knee replacement surgery, 711 for prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis in medical patients with severely restricted mobility during acute illness, 1,578 for prophylaxis of ischemic complications in unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, 10,176 for treatment of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and 857 for treatment of deep vein thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism. Enoxaparin sodium doses in the clinical trials for prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis following abdominal or hip or knee replacement surgery or in medical patients with severely restricted mobility during acute illness ranged from 40 mg SC once daily to 30 mg SC twice daily. In the clinical studies for prophylaxis of ischemic complications of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction doses were 1 mg/kg every 12 hours and in the clinical studies for treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction enoxaparin sodium doses were a 30 mg IV bolus followed by 1 mg/kg every 12 hours SC. Hemorrhage The incidence of major hemorrhagic complications during Lovenox treatment has been low. The following rates of major bleeding events have been reported during clinical trials with Lovenox [see Tables 2 to 7]. Table 2 Major Bleeding Episodes Following Abdominal and Colorectal SurgeryBleeding complications were considered major: (1) if the hemorrhage caused a significant clinical event, or (2) if accompanied by a hemoglobin decrease ≥ 2 g/dL or transfusion of 2 or more units of blood products. Retroperitoneal, intraocular, and intracranial hemorrhages were always considered major. Dosing Regimen Indications Lovenox 40 mg q.d. SC Heparin 5000 U q8h SC Abdominal Surgery n = 555 23 (4%) n = 560 16 (3%) Colorectal Surgery n = 673 28 (4%) n = 674 21 (3%) Table 3 Major Bleeding Episodes Following Hip or Knee Replacement SurgeryBleeding complications were considered major: (1) if the hemorrhage caused a significant clinical event, or (2) if accompanied by a hemoglobin decrease ≥ 2 g/dL or transfusion of 2 or more units of blood products. Retroperitoneal and intracranial hemorrhages were always considered major. In the knee replacement surgery trials, intraocular hemorrhages were also considered major hemorrhages. Indications Dosing Regimen Lovenox 40 mg q.d. SC Lovenox 30 mg q12h SC Heparin 15,000 U/24h SC Hip Replacement Surgery without Extended ProphylaxisLovenox 30 mg every 12 hours SC initiated 12 to 24 hours after surgery and continued for up to 14 days after surgery n = 786 31 (4%) n = 541 32 (6%) Hip Replacement Surgery with Extended Prophylaxis Peri-operative PeriodLovenox 40 mg SC once a day initiated up to 12 hours prior to surgery and continued for up to 7 days after surgery n = 288 4 (2%) Extended Prophylaxis PeriodLovenox 40 mg SC once a day for up to 21 days after discharge n = 221 0 (0%) Knee Replacement Surgery without Extended Prophylaxis n = 294 3 (1%) n = 225 3 (1%) NOTE: At no time point were the 40 mg once a day pre-operative and the 30 mg every 12 hours post-operative hip replacement surgery prophylactic regimens compared in clinical trials. Injection site hematomas during the extended prophylaxis period after hip replacement surgery occurred in 9% of the Lovenox patients versus 1.8% of the placebo patients. Table 4 Major Bleeding Episodes in Medical Patients with Severely Restricted Mobility During Acute IllnessBleeding complications were considered major: (1) if the hemorrhage caused a significant clinical event, (2) if the hemorrhage caused a decrease in hemoglobin of ≥ 2 g/dL or transfusion of 2 or more units of blood products. Retroperitoneal and intracranial hemorrhages were always considered major although none were reported during the trial. Indications Dosing Regimen LovenoxThe rates represent major bleeding on study medication up to 24 hours after last dose. 20 mg q.d. SC Lovenox 40 mg q.d. SC Placebo Medical Patients During Acute Illness n = 351 1 (<1%) n = 360 3 (<1%) n = 362 2 (<1%) Table 5 Major Bleeding Episodes in Deep Vein Thrombosis with or without Pulmonary Embolism Treatment Bleeding complications were considered major: (1) if the hemorrhage caused a significant clinical event, or (2) if accompanied by a hemoglobin decrease ≥ 2 g/dL or transfusion of 2 or more units of blood products. Retroperitoneal, intraocular, and intracranial hemorrhages were always considered major. Dosing RegimenAll patients also received warfarin sodium (dose-adjusted according to PT to achieve an INR of 2.0 to 3.0) commencing within 72 hours of Lovenox or standard heparin therapy and continuing for up to 90 days. Indication Lovenox 1.5 mg/kg q.d. SC Lovenox 1 mg/kg q12h SC Heparin aPTT Adjusted IV Therapy Treatment of DVT and PE n = 298 5 (2%) n = 559 9 (2%) n = 554 9 (2%) Table 6 Major Bleeding Episodes in Unstable Angina and Non-Q-Wave Myocardial Infarction Indication Dosing Regimen LovenoxThe rates represent major bleeding on study medication up to 12 hours after dose. 1 mg/kg q12h SC Heparin aPTT Adjusted IV Therapy Unstable Angina and Non-Q-Wave MIAspirin therapy was administered concurrently (100 to 325 mg per day). , Bleeding complications were considered major: (1) if the hemorrhage caused a significant clinical event, or (2) if accompanied by a hemoglobin decrease by ≥ 3 g/dL or transfusion of 2 or more units of blood products. Intraocular, retroperitoneal, and intracranial hemorrhages were always considered major. n = 1578 17 (1%) n = 1529 18 (1%) Table 7 Major Bleeding Episodes in Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Dosing Regimen Indication Lovenox The rates represent major bleeding (including ICH) up to 30 days Initial 30 mg IV bolus followed by 1 mg/kg q12h SC Heparin aPTT Adjusted IV Therapy Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction n = 10176 n (%) n = 10151 n (%) - Major bleeding (including ICH) Bleedings were considered major if the hemorrhage caused a significant clinical event associated with a hemoglobin decrease by ≥ 5 g/dL. ICH were always considered major. 211 (2.1) 138 (1.4) - Intracranial hemorrhages (ICH) 84 (0.8) 66 (0.7) Elevations of Serum Aminotransferases Asymptomatic increases in aspartate (AST [SGOT]) and alanine (ALT [SGPT]) aminotransferase levels greater than three times the upper limit of normal of the laboratory reference range have been reported in up to 6.1% and 5.9% of patients, respectively, during treatment with Lovenox. Similar significant increases in aminotransferase levels have also been observed in patients and healthy volunteers treated with heparin and other low molecular weight heparins. Such elevations are fully reversible and are rarely associated with increases in bilirubin. Since aminotransferase determinations are important in the differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction, liver disease, and pulmonary emboli, elevations that might be caused by drugs like Lovenox should be interpreted with caution. Local Reactions Mild local irritation, pain, hematoma, ecchymosis, and erythema may follow SC injection of Lovenox. Adverse Reactions in Patients Receiving Lovenox for Prophylaxis or Treatment of DVT, PE: Other adverse reactions that were thought to be possibly or probably related to treatment with Lovenox, heparin, or placebo in clinical trials with patients undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery, abdominal or colorectal surgery, or treatment for DVT and that occurred at a rate of at least 2% in the Lovenox group, are provided below [see Tables 8 to 11]. Table 8 Adverse Reactions Occurring at ≥2% Incidence in Lovenox-Treated Patients Undergoing Abdominal or Colorectal Surgery Adverse Reaction Dosing Regimen Lovenox 40 mg q.d. SC n = 1228 % Heparin 5000 U q8h SC n = 1234 % Severe Total Severe Total Hemorrhage <1 7 <1 6 Anemia <1 3 <1 3 Ecchymosis 0 3 0 3 Table 9 Adverse Reactions Occurring at ≥2% Incidence in Lovenox-Treated Patients Undergoing Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery Adverse Reaction Dosing Regimen Lovenox 40 mg q.d. SC Lovenox 30 mg q12h SC Heparin 15,000 U/24h SC Placebo q12h SC Peri-operative Period n = 288 Data represent Lovenox 40 mg SC once a day initiated up to 12 hours prior to surgery in 288 hip replacement surgery patients who received Lovenox peri-operatively in an unblinded fashion in one clinical trial. % Extended Prophylaxis Period n = 131 Data represent Lovenox 40 mg SC once a day given in a blinded fashion as extended prophylaxis at the end of the peri-operative period in 131 of the original 288 hip replacement surgery patients for up to 21 days in one clinical trial. % n = 1080 % n = 766 % n = 115 % Severe Total Severe Total Severe Total Severe Total Severe Total Fever 0 8 0 0 <1 5 <1 4 0 3 Hemorrhage <1 13 0 5 <1 4 1 4 0 3 Nausea <1 3 <1 2 0 2 Anemia 0 16 0 <2 <1 2 2 5 <1 7 Edema <1 2 <1 2 0 2 Peripheral edema 0 6 0 0 <1 3 <1 4 0 3 Table 10 Adverse Reactions Occurring at ≥2% Incidence in Lovenox-Treated Medical Patients with Severely Restricted Mobility During Acute Illness Adverse Reaction Dosing Regimen Lovenox 40 mg q.d. SC n = 360 % Placebo q.d. SC n = 362 % Dyspnea 3.3 5.2 Thrombocytopenia 2.8 2.8 Confusion 2.2 1.1 Diarrhea 2.2 1.7 Nausea 2.5 1.7 Table 11 Adverse Reactions Occurring at ≥2% Incidence in Lovenox-Treated Patients Undergoing Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis with or without Pulmonary Embolism Adverse Reaction Dosing Regimen Lovenox 1.5 mg/kg q.d. SC n = 298 % Lovenox 1 mg/kg q12h SC n = 559 % Heparin aPTT Adjusted IV Therapy n = 544 % Severe Total Severe Total Severe Total Injection Site Hemorrhage 0 5 0 3 <1 <1 Injection Site Pain 0 2 0 2 0 0 Hematuria 0 2 0 <1 <1 2 Adverse Events in Lovenox-Treated Patients with Unstable Angina or Non-Q-Wave Myocardial Infarction: Non-hemorrhagic clinical events reported to be related to Lovenox therapy occurred at an incidence of ≤1%. Non-major hemorrhagic events, primarily injection site ecchymoses and hematomas, were more frequently reported in patients treated with SC Lovenox than in patients treated with IV heparin. Serious adverse events with Lovenox or heparin in a clinical trial in patients with unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction that occurred at a rate of at least 0.5% in the Lovenox group are provided below [see Table 12]. Table 12 Serious Adverse Events Occurring at ≥0.5% Incidence in Lovenox-Treated Patients with Unstable Angina or Non-Q-Wave Myocardial Infarction Adverse Event Dosing Regimen Lovenox 1 mg/kg q12h SC n = 1578 n (%) Heparin aPTT Adjusted IV Therapy n = 1529 n (%) Atrial fibrillation 11 (0.70) 3 (0.20) Heart failure 15 (0.95) 11 (0.72) Lung edema 11 (0.70) 11 (0.72) Pneumonia 13 (0.82) 9 (0.59) Adverse Reactions in Lovenox-Treated Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: In a clinical trial in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, the only adverse reaction that occurred at a rate of at least 0.5% in the Lovenox group was thrombocytopenia (1.5%). 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of Lovenox. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. There have been reports of epidural or spinal hematoma formation with concurrent use of Lovenox and spinal/epidural anesthesia or spinal puncture. The majority of patients had a post-operative indwelling epidural catheter placed for analgesia or received additional drugs affecting hemostasis such as NSAIDs. Many of the epidural or spinal hematomas caused neurologic injury, including long-term or permanent paralysis. Local reactions at the injection site (e.g. nodules, inflammation, oozing), systemic allergic reactions (e.g. pruritus, urticaria, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions including shock), vesiculobullous rash, rare cases of hypersensitivity cutaneous vasculitis, purpura, skin necrosis (occurring at either the injection site or distant from the injection site), thrombocytosis, and thrombocytopenia with thrombosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] have been reported. Cases of hyperkalemia have been reported. Most of these reports occurred in patients who also had conditions that tend toward the development of hyperkalemia (e.g., renal dysfunction, concomitant potassium-sparing drugs, administration of potassium, hematoma in body tissues). Very rare cases of hyperlipidemia have also been reported, with one case of hyperlipidemia, with marked hypertriglyceridemia, reported in a diabetic pregnant woman; causality has not been determined. Cases of headache, hemorrhagic anemia, eosinophilia, alopecia, hepatocellular and cholestatic liver injury have been reported. Osteoporosis has also been reported following long-term therapy.

Drug Interactions

Whenever possible, agents which may enhance the risk of hemorrhage should be discontinued prior to initiation of Lovenox therapy. These agents include medications such as: anticoagulants, platelet inhibitors including acetylsalicylic acid, salicylates, NSAIDs (including ketorolac tromethamine), dipyridamole, or sulfinpyrazone. If co-administration is essential, conduct close clinical and laboratory monitoring [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ]. Discontinue agents which may enhance hemorrhage risk prior to initiation of Lovenox or conduct close clinical and laboratory monitoring (5.9, 7)

Use In Specific Populations

Severe Renal Impairment: Adjust dose for patients with creatinine clearance <30mL/min (2.2, 8.7) Geriatric Patients: Monitor for increased risk of bleeding (8.5) Patients with mechanical heart valves: Not adequately studied (8.6) Hepatic Impairment: Use with caution. (8.8) Low-Weight Patients: Observe for signs of bleeding (8.9) Obese Patients: Not adequately studied. Observe for thromboembolism (8.10) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category B All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcome regardless of drug exposure. The fetal risk summary below describes the potential of Lovenox to increase the risk of developmental abnormalities above the background risk. Fetal Risk Summary Lovenox does not cross the placenta, and is not expected to result in fetal exposure to the drug. Human data from a retrospective cohort study, which included 693 live births, suggest that Lovenox does not increase the risk of major developmental abnormalities. Based on animal data, enoxaparin is not predicted to increase the risk of major developmental abnormalities (see Data ). Clinical Considerations Pregnancy alone confers an increased risk for thromboembolism that is even higher for women with thromboembolic disease and certain high risk pregnancy conditions. While not adequately studied, pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves may be at even higher risk for thrombosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6) ]. Pregnant women with thromboembolic disease, including those with mechanical prosthetic heart valves and those with inherited or acquired thrombophilias, have an increased risk of other maternal complications and fetal loss regardless of the type of anticoagulant used. All patients receiving anticoagulants, including pregnant women, are at risk for bleeding. Pregnant women receiving enoxaparin should be carefully monitored for evidence of bleeding or excessive anticoagulation. Consideration for use of a shorter acting anticoagulant should be specifically addressed as delivery approaches [see Boxed Warning ]. Hemorrhage can occur at any site and may lead to death of mother and/or fetus. Pregnant women should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus and the mother if enoxaparin is administered during pregnancy. It is not known if monitoring of anti-Factor Xa activity and dose adjustment (by weight or anti-Factor Xa activity) of Lovenox affect the safety and the efficacy of the drug during pregnancy. Cases of "gasping syndrome" have occurred in premature infants when large amounts of benzyl alcohol have been administered (99–405 mg/kg/day). The multiple-dose vial of Lovenox contains 15 mg benzyl alcohol per 1 mL as a preservative [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ]. Data Human Data - There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. A retrospective study reviewed the records of 604 women who used enoxaparin during pregnancy. A total of 624 pregnancies resulted in 693 live births. There were 72 hemorrhagic events (11 serious) in 63 women. There were 14 cases of neonatal hemorrhage. Major congenital anomalies in live births occurred at rates (2.5%) similar to background rates. There have been postmarketing reports of fetal death when pregnant women received Lovenox. Causality for these cases has not been determined. Insufficient data, the underlying disease, and the possibility of inadequate anticoagulation complicate the evaluation of these cases. A clinical study using enoxaparin in pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves has been conducted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ]. Animal Data - Teratology studies have been conducted in pregnant rats and rabbits at SC doses of enoxaparin up to 15 times the recommended human dose (by comparison with 2 mg/kg as the maximum recommended daily dose). There was no evidence of teratogenic effects or fetotoxicity due to enoxaparin. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether Lovenox is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Lovenox, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue Lovenox, taking into account the importance of Lovenox to the mother and the known benefits of nursing. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of Lovenox in pediatric patients have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Prevention of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Hip, Knee and Abdominal Surgery; Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis, Prevention of Ischemic Complications of Unstable Angina and Non-Q-wave Myocardial Infarction Over 2800 patients, 65 years and older, have received Lovenox in pivotal clinical trials. The efficacy of Lovenox in the geriatric (≥65 years) was similar to that seen in younger patients (<65 years). The incidence of bleeding complications was similar between geriatric and younger patients when 30 mg every 12 hours or 40 mg once a day doses of Lovenox were employed. The incidence of bleeding complications was higher in geriatric patients as compared to younger patients when Lovenox was administered at doses of 1.5 mg/kg once a day or 1 mg/kg every 12 hours. The risk of Lovenox-associated bleeding increased with age. Serious adverse events increased with age for patients receiving Lovenox. Other clinical experience (including postmarketing surveillance and literature reports) has not revealed additional differences in the safety of Lovenox between geriatric and younger patients. Careful attention to dosing intervals and concomitant medications (especially antiplatelet medications) is advised. Lovenox should be used with care in geriatric patients who may show delayed elimination of enoxaparin. Monitoring of geriatric patients with low body weight (<45 kg) and those predisposed to decreased renal function should be considered [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Treatment of Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction In the clinical study for treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, there was no evidence of difference in efficacy between patients ≥75 years of age (n = 1241) and patients less than 75 years of age (n=9015). Patients ≥75 years of age did not receive a 30 mg IV bolus prior to the normal dosage regimen and had their SC dose adjusted to 0.75 mg/kg every 12 hours [see Dosage and Administration (2.3 )]. The incidence of bleeding complications was higher in patients ≥65 years of age as compared to younger patients (<65 years). 8.6 Patients with Mechanical Prosthetic Heart Valves The use of Lovenox has not been adequately studied for thromboprophylaxis in patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valves and has not been adequately studied for long-term use in this patient population. Isolated cases of prosthetic heart valve thrombosis have been reported in patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valves who have received enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis. Some of these cases were pregnant women in whom thrombosis led to maternal and fetal deaths. Insufficient data, the underlying disease and the possibility of inadequate anticoagulation complicate the evaluation of these cases. Pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves may be at higher risk for thromboembolism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ]. 8.7 Renal Impairment In patients with renal impairment, there is an increase in exposure of enoxaparin sodium. All such patients should be observed carefully for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Because exposure of enoxaparin sodium is significantly increased in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min), a dosage adjustment is recommended for therapeutic and prophylactic dosage ranges. No dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate (creatinine clearance 30–50 mL/min) and mild (creatinine clearance 50–80 mL/min) renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3 )]. In patients with renal failure, treatment with enoxaparin has been associated with the development of hyperkalemia [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. 8.8 Hepatic Impairment The impact of hepatic impairment on enoxaparin's exposure and antithrombotic effect has not been investigated. Caution should be exercised when administering enoxaparin to patients with hepatic impairment. 8.9 Low-Weight Patients An increase in exposure of enoxaparin sodium with prophylactic dosages (non-weight adjusted) has been observed in low-weight women (<45 kg) and low-weight men (<57 kg). All such patients should be observed carefully for signs and symptoms of bleeding [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 8.10 Obese Patients Obese patients are at higher risk for thromboembolism. The safety and efficacy of prophylactic doses of Lovenox in obese patients (BMI >30 kg/m2) has not been fully determined and there is no consensus for dose adjustment. These patients should be observed carefully for signs and symptoms of thromboembolism.

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