|Dosage and Administration (2) ||5/2014 |
|Warnings and Precautions (5) ||5/2014 |
|Studies Pertinent to Safety Concerns for Sedative ||5/2014 |
|Hypnotic Drugs (14.3) || |
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE LUNESTA® (eszopiclone) is indicated for the treatment of insomnia. In controlled outpatient and sleep laboratory studies, LUNESTA administered at bedtime decreased sleep latency and improved sleep maintenance. The clinical trials performed in support of efficacy were up to 6 months in duration. The final formal assessments of sleep latency and maintenance were performed at 4 weeks in the 6-week study (adults only), at the end of both 2-week studies (elderly only) and at the end of the 6-month study (adults only). LUNESTA is indicated for the treatment of insomnia. LUNESTA has been shown to decrease sleep latency and improve sleep maintenance (1)
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS LUNESTA is available in 1 mg, 2 mg and 3 mg strengths for oral administration. LUNESTA 3 mg tablets are round, dark blue, film-coated, and identified with debossed markings of S193 on one side. LUNESTA 2 mg tablets are round, white, film-coated, and identified with debossed markings of S191 on one side. LUNESTA 1 mg tablets are round, light blue, film-coated, and identified with debossed markings of S190 on one side. Tablets: 1 mg, 2 mg, and 3 mg (3)
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS LUNESTA is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to eszopiclone. Hypersensitivity reactions include anaphylaxis and angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Known hypersensitivity to eszopiclone (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS CNS depressant effects: Impaired alertness and motor coordination, including risk of morning impairment. Risk increases with dose. Caution patients taking 3 mg dose against driving and against activities requiring complete mental alertness during the morning after use. (5.1) Evaluate for Co-Morbid Diagnoses: Reevaluate if insomnia persists after 7 to 10 days of use (5.2) Severe Anaphylactic/Anaphylactoid Reactions (angioedema and anaphylaxis have been reported): Do not rechallenge if such reactions occur (5.3) Abnormal Thinking, Behavioral Changes (e.g., hallucinations), Complex Behaviors (e.g., “sleep-driving”): Immediately evaluate if occurs (5.4) Worsening of Depression or Suicidal Thinking may occur: Prescribe the least number of tablets feasible to avoid intentional overdose (5.4, 5.7) Withdrawal Effects: symptoms may occur with rapid dose reduction or discontinuation (5.5, 9.3) Elderly Patients: Use lower dose due to impaired motor, cognitive performance and increased sensitivity (2.2, 5.7) Patients with hepatic impairment, impaired respiratory function, impaired drug metabolism or hemodynamic responses: Use with caution (5.7) 5.1 CNS Depressant Effects and Next-Day Impairment LUNESTA is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant and can impair daytime function in some patients at the higher doses (2 mg or 3 mg), even when used as prescribed. Prescribers should monitor for excess depressant effects, but impairment can occur in the absence of symptoms (or even with subjective improvement), and impairment may not be reliably detected by ordinary clinical exam (i.e., less than formal psychomotor testing). While pharmacodynamic tolerance or adaptation to some adverse depressant effects of LUNESTA may develop, patients using 3 mg LUNESTA should be cautioned against driving or engaging in other hazardous activities or activities requiring complete mental alertness the day after use. Additive effects occur with concomitant use of other CNS depressants (e.g., benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, alcohol), including daytime use. Downward dose adjustment of LUNESTA and concomitant CNS depressants should be considered [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. The use of LUNESTA with other sedative-hypnotics at bedtime or the middle of the night is not recommended. The risk of next-day psychomotor impairment is increased if LUNESTA is taken with less than a full night of sleep remaining (7- to 8 hours); if higher than the recommended dose is taken; if co-administered with other CNS depressants; or co-administered with other drugs that increase the blood levels of eszopiclone [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Studies (14.3)]. 5.2 Need to Evaluate for Co-Morbid Diagnoses Because sleep disturbances may be the presenting manifestation of a physical and/or psychiatric disorder, symptomatic treatment of insomnia should be initiated only after a careful evaluation of the patient. The failure of insomnia to remit after 7 to 10 days of treatment may indicate the presence of a primary psychiatric and/or medical illness that should be evaluated. Worsening of insomnia or the emergence of new thinking or behavior abnormalities may be the consequence of an unrecognized psychiatric or physical disorder. Such findings have emerged during the course of treatment with sedative/hypnotic drugs, including LUNESTA. Because some of the important adverse effects of LUNESTA appear to be dose-related, it is important to use the lowest possible effective dose, especially in the elderly [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. 5.3 Severe Anaphylactic and Anaphylactoid Reactions Rare cases of angioedema involving the tongue, glottis or larynx have been reported in patients after taking the first or subsequent doses of sedative-hypnotics, including LUNESTA. Some patients have had additional symptoms such as dyspnea, throat closing, or nausea and vomiting that suggest anaphylaxis. Some patients have required medical therapy in the emergency department. If angioedema involves the tongue, glottis or larynx, airway obstruction may occur and be fatal. Patients who develop angioedema after treatment with LUNESTA should not be rechallenged with the drug. 5.4 Abnormal Thinking and Behavioral Changes A variety of abnormal thinking and behavior changes have been reported to occur in association with the use of sedative/hypnotics. Some of these changes may be characterized by decreased inhibition (e.g., aggressiveness and extroversion that seem out of character), similar to effects produced by alcohol and other CNS depressants. Other reported behavioral changes have included bizarre behavior, agitation, hallucinations, and depersonalization. Amnesia and other neuropsychiatric symptoms may occur unpredictably. In primarily depressed patients, worsening of depression, including suicidal thoughts and actions (including completed suicides), has been reported in association with the use of sedative/hypnotics. Complex behaviors such as “sleep-driving” (i.e., driving while not fully awake after ingestion of a sedative-hypnotic, with amnesia for the event) have been reported. These events can occur in sedative-hypnotic-naïve as well as in sedative-hypnotic-experienced persons. Although behaviors such as sleep-driving may occur with LUNESTA alone at therapeutic doses, the use of alcohol and other CNS depressants with LUNESTA appears to increase the risk of such behaviors, as does the use of LUNESTA at doses exceeding the maximum recommended dose. Due to the risk to the patient and the community, discontinuation of LUNESTA should be strongly considered for patients who report a “sleep-driving” episode. Other complex behaviors (e.g., preparing and eating food, making phone calls, or having sex) have been reported in patients who are not fully awake after taking a sedative-hypnotic. As with sleep-driving, patients usually do not remember these events. It can rarely be determined with certainty whether a particular instance of the abnormal behaviors listed above are drug-induced, spontaneous in origin, or a result of an underlying psychiatric or physical disorder. Nonetheless, the emergence of any new behavioral sign or symptom of concern requires careful and immediate evaluation. 5.5 Withdrawal Effects Following rapid dose decrease or abrupt discontinuation of the use of sedative/hypnotics, there have been reports of signs and symptoms similar to those associated with withdrawal from other CNS-depressant drugs [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)]. 5.6 Timing of Drug Administration LUNESTA should be taken immediately before bedtime. Taking a sedative/hypnotic while still up and about may result in short-term memory impairment, hallucinations, impaired coordination, dizziness, and lightheadedness. 5.7 Special Populations Use in Elderly and/or Debilitated Patients Impaired motor and/or cognitive performance after repeated exposure or unusual sensitivity to sedative/hypnotic drugs is a concern in the treatment of elderly and/or debilitated patients. The dose should not exceed 2 mg in elderly or debilitated patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness Clinical experience with eszopiclone in patients with concomitant illness is limited. Eszopiclone should be used with caution in patients with diseases or conditions that could affect metabolism or hemodynamic responses. A study in healthy volunteers did not reveal respiratory-depressant effects at doses 2.5-fold higher (7 mg) than the recommended dose of eszopiclone. Caution is advised, however, if LUNESTA is prescribed to patients with compromised respiratory function. The dose of LUNESTA should not exceed 2 mg in patients with severe hepatic impairment, because systemic exposure is doubled in such subjects. No dose adjustment appears necessary for subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. No dose adjustment appears necessary in subjects with any degree of renal impairment, since less than 10% of eszopiclone is excreted unchanged in the urine. The dose of LUNESTA should be reduced in patients who are administered potent inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as ketoconazole, while taking LUNESTA. Downward dose adjustment is also recommended when LUNESTA is administered with agents having known CNS-depressant effects. Use in Patients with Depression Sedative/hypnotic drugs should be administered with caution to patients exhibiting signs and symptoms of depression. Suicidal tendencies may be present in such patients, and protective measures may be required. Intentional overdose is more common in this group of patients; therefore, the least amount of drug that is feasible should be prescribed for the patient at any one time.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. The premarketing development program for LUNESTA included eszopiclone exposures in patients and/or normal subjects from two different groups of studies: approximately 400 normal subjects in clinical pharmacology/pharmacokinetic studies, and approximately 1550 patients in placebo-controlled clinical effectiveness studies, corresponding to approximately 263 patient-exposure years. The conditions and duration of treatment with LUNESTA varied greatly and included (in overlapping categories) open-label and double-blind phases of studies, inpatients and outpatients, and short-term and longer-term exposure. Adverse reactions were assessed by collecting adverse events, results of physical examinations, vital signs, weights, laboratory analyses, and ECGs. The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while the patient was receiving therapy following baseline evaluation. Most commonly observed adverse reactions (incidence ≥2%) were unpleasant taste, headache, somnolence, respiratory infection, dizziness, dry mouth, rash, anxiety, hallucinations, and viral infections (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc. at 1-877-737-7226 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Adverse Reactions Resulting in Discontinuation of Treatment In placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trials in the elderly, 3.8% of 208 patients who received placebo, 2.3% of 215 patients who received 2 mg LUNESTA, and 1.4% of 72 patients who received 1 mg LUNESTA discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction. In the 6-week parallel-group study in adults, no patients in the 3 mg arm discontinued because of an adverse reaction. In the long-term 6-month study in adult insomnia patients, 7.2% of 195 patients who received placebo and 12.8% of 593 patients who received 3 mg LUNESTA discontinued due to an adverse reaction. No reaction that resulted in discontinuation occurred at a rate of greater than 2%. Adverse Reactions Observed at an Incidence of ≥2% in Controlled Trials Table 1 shows the incidence of adverse reactions from a Phase 3 placebo-controlled study of LUNESTA at doses of 2 or 3 mg in non-elderly adults. Treatment duration in this trial was 44 days. The table includes only reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with LUNESTA 2 mg or 3 mg in which the incidence in patients treated with LUNESTA was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients. Table 1: Incidence (%) of Adverse Reactions in a 6-Week Placebo-Controlled Study in Non-Elderly Adults with LUNESTA1 1 Reactions for which the LUNESTA incidence was equal to or less than placebo are not listed on the table, but included the following: abnormal dreams, accidental injury, back pain, diarrhea, flu syndrome, myalgia, pain, pharyngitis, and rhinitis. * Gender-specific adverse reaction in females ** Gender-specific adverse reaction in males Adverse Reaction Placebo (n=99) LUNESTA 2 mg (n=104) LUNESTA 3 mg (n=105) Body as a Whole Headache 13 21 17 Viral Infection 1 3 3 Digestive System Dry Mouth 3 5 7 Dyspepsia 4 4 5 Nausea 4 5 4 Vomiting 1 3 0 Nervous System Anxiety 0 3 1 Confusion 0 0 3 Depression 0 4 1 Dizziness 4 5 7 Hallucinations 0 1 3 Libido Decreased 0 0 3 Nervousness 3 5 0 Somnolence 3 10 8 Respiratory System Infection 3 5 10 Skin and Appendages Rash 1 3 4 Special Senses Unpleasant Taste 3 17 34 Urogenital System Dysmenorrhea * 0 3 0 Gynecomastia ** 0 3 0 Adverse reactions from Table 1 that suggest a dose-response relationship in adults include viral infection, dry mouth, dizziness, hallucinations, infection, rash, and unpleasant taste, with this relationship clearest for unpleasant taste. Table 2 shows the incidence of adverse reactions from combined Phase 3 placebo-controlled studies of LUNESTA at doses of 1 or 2 mg in elderly adults (ages 65-86). Treatment duration in these trials was 14 days. The table includes only reactions that occurred in 2% or more of patients treated with LUNESTA 1 mg or 2 mg in which the incidence in patients treated with LUNESTA was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients. Table 2: Incidence (%) of Adverse Reactions in Elderly Adults (Ages 65-86) in 2-Week Placebo-Controlled Trials with LUNESTA1 1 Reactions for which the LUNESTA incidence was equal to or less than placebo are not listed on the table, but included the following: abdominal pain, asthenia, nausea, rash, and somnolence. Adverse Reactions Placebo (n=208) LUNESTA 1 mg (n=72) LUNESTA 2 mg (n=215) Body as a Whole Accidental Injury 1 0 3 Headache 14 15 13 Pain 2 4 5 Digestive System Diarrhea 2 4 2 Dry Mouth 2 3 7 Dyspepsia 2 6 2 Nervous System Abnormal Dreams 0 3 1 Dizziness 2 1 6 Nervousness 1 0 2 Neuralgia 0 3 0 Skin and Appendages Pruritus 1 4 1 Special Senses Unpleasant Taste 0 8 12 Urogenital System Urinary Tract Infection 0 3 0 Adverse reactions from Table 2 that suggest a dose-response relationship in elderly adults include pain, dry mouth, and unpleasant taste, with this relationship again clearest for unpleasant taste. These figures cannot be used to predict the incidence of adverse reactions in the course of usual medical practice because patient characteristics and other factors may differ from those that prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physician with some basis for estimating the relative contributions of drug and non-drug factors to the adverse reaction incidence rate in the population studied. Other Reactions Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of LUNESTA Following is a list of modified COSTART terms that reflect adverse reactions as defined in the introduction to the Adverse Reactions section and reported by approximately 1550 subjects treated with LUNESTA at doses in the range of 1 to 3.5 mg/day during Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials throughout the United States and Canada. All reported reactions are included except those already listed in Tables 1 and 2 or elsewhere in labeling, minor reactions common in the general population, and reactions unlikely to be drug-related. Although the reactions reported occurred during treatment with LUNESTA, they were not necessarily caused by it. Reactions are further categorized by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency according to the following definitions: frequent adverse reactions are those that occurred on one or more occasions in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse reactions are those that occurred in fewer than 1/100 patients but in at least 1/1,000 patients; rare adverse reactions are those that occurred in fewer than 1/1,000 patients. Gender-specific reactions are categorized based on their incidence for the appropriate gender. Body as a Whole: Frequent: chest pain; Infrequent: allergic reaction, cellulitis, face edema, fever, halitosis, heat stroke, hernia, malaise, neck rigidity, photosensitivity. Cardiovascular System: Frequent: migraine; Infrequent: hypertension; Rare: thrombophlebitis. Digestive System: Infrequent: anorexia, cholelithiasis, increased appetite, melena, mouth ulceration, thirst, ulcerative stomatitis; Rare: colitis, dysphagia, gastritis, hepatitis, hepatomegaly, liver damage, stomach ulcer, stomatitis, tongue edema, rectal hemorrhage. Hemic and Lymphatic System: Infrequent: anemia, lymphadenopathy. Metabolic and Nutritional: Frequent: peripheral edema; Infrequent: hypercholesteremia, weight gain, weight loss; Rare: dehydration, gout, hyperlipemia, hypokalemia. Musculoskeletal System: Infrequent: arthritis, bursitis, joint disorder (mainly swelling, stiffness, and pain), leg cramps, myasthenia, twitching; Rare: arthrosis, myopathy, ptosis. Nervous System: Infrequent: agitation, apathy, ataxia, emotional lability, hostility, hypertonia, hypesthesia, incoordination, insomnia, memory impairment, neurosis, nystagmus, paresthesia, reflexes decreased, thinking abnormal (mainly difficulty concentrating), vertigo; Rare: abnormal gait, euphoria, hyperesthesia, hypokinesia, neuritis, neuropathy, stupor, tremor. Respiratory System: Infrequent: asthma, bronchitis, dyspnea, epistaxis, hiccup, laryngitis. Skin and Appendages: Infrequent: acne, alopecia, contact dermatitis, dry skin, eczema, skin discoloration, sweating, urticaria; Rare: erythema multiforme, furunculosis, herpes zoster, hirsutism, maculopapular rash, vesiculobullous rash. Special Senses: Infrequent: conjunctivitis, dry eyes, ear pain, otitis externa, otitis media, tinnitus, vestibular disorder; Rare: hyperacusis, iritis, mydriasis, photophobia. Urogenital System: Infrequent: amenorrhea, breast engorgement, breast enlargement, breast neoplasm, breast pain, cystitis, dysuria, female lactation, hematuria, kidney calculus, kidney pain, mastitis, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, urinary frequency, urinary incontinence, uterine hemorrhage, vaginal hemorrhage, vaginitis; Rare: oliguria, pyelonephritis, urethritis. 6.2 Post-Marketing Experience In addition to the adverse reactions observed during clinical trials, dysosmia, an olfactory dysfunction that is characterized by distortion of the sense of smell, has been reported during post-marketing surveillance with LUNESTA. Because this event is reported spontaneously from a population of unknown size, it is not possible to estimate the frequency of this event.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS CNS Depressants: Additive CNS-depressant effects with combination use. Use with ethanol causes additive psychomotor impairment (7.1) Rifampicin: Combination use may decrease exposure and effects of LUNESTA (7.2) Ketoconazole: Combination use increases exposure and effect of LUNESTA. Dose reduction of LUNESTA is needed (7.2) 7.1 CNS Active Drugs Ethanol: An additive effect on psychomotor performance was seen with coadministration of eszopiclone and ethanol. Olanzapine: Coadministration of eszopiclone and olanzapine produced a decrease in DSST scores. The interaction was pharmacodynamic; there was no alteration in the pharmacokinetics of either drug. 7.2 Drugs that Inhibit or Induce CYP3A4 Drugs That Inhibit CYP3A4 (Ketoconazole) CYP3A4 is a major metabolic pathway for elimination of eszopiclone. The exposure of eszopiclone was increased by coadministration of ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Other strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., itraconazole, clarithromycin, nefazodone, troleandomycin, ritonavir, nelfinavir) would be expected to behave similarly. Dose reduction of LUNESTA is needed for patient co-administered LUNESTA with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. Drugs that Induce CYP3A4 (Rifampicin) Racemic zopiclone exposure was decreased 80% by concomitant use of rifampicin, a potent inducer of CYP3A4. A similar effect would be expected with eszopiclone. Combination use with CYP3A4 inducer may decrease the exposure and effects of LUNESTA.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: Based on animal data, may cause fetal harm (8.1) Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness not established. Dizziness, dysgeusia, hallucinations, suicidal ideation reported (8.4) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. LUNESTA should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Oral administration of eszopiclone to pregnant rats (62.5, 125, or 250 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (4, 8, or 16 mg/kg/day) throughout organogenesis showed no evidence of teratogenicity up to the highest doses tested. In rats, reduced fetal weight and increased incidences of skeletal variations and/or delayed ossification were observed at the mid and high doses. The no-observed-effect dose for adverse effects on embryofetal development is 200 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 3 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis. No effects on embryofetal development were observed in rabbits; the highest dose tested is approximately 100 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. Oral administration of eszopiclone (60, 120, or 180 mg/kg/day) to pregnant rats throughout the pregnancy and lactation resulted in increased post-implantation loss, decreased postnatal pup weights and survival, and increased pup startle response at all doses. The lowest dose tested is approximately 200 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. Eszopiclone had no effects on other developmental measures or reproductive function in the offspring. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of LUNESTA have not been established in pediatric patients. LUNESTA failed to demonstrate efficacy in controlled clinical studies of pediatric patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity (ADHD) associated insomnia. In a 12-week controlled study, 483 pediatric patients (aged 6-17 years) with insomnia associated with ADHD (with 65% of the patients using concomitant ADHD treatments) were treated with oral tablets of LUNESTA (1 or 2 or 3 mg tablets, n=323), or placebo (n=160). LUNESTA did not significantly decrease latency to persistent sleep, compared to placebo, as measured by polysomnography after 12 weeks of treatment. Psychiatric and nervous system disorders comprised the most frequent treatment emergent adverse reactions observed with LUNESTA versus placebo and included dysgeusia (9% vs. 1%), dizziness (6% vs. 2%), hallucinations (2% vs. 0%) and suicidal ideation (0.3% vs. 0%). Nine patients on LUNESTA (3%) discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction compared to 3 patients on placebo (2%). In studies in which eszopiclone (2 to 300 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to young rats from weaning through sexual maturity, neurobehavioral impairment (altered auditory startle response) and reproductive toxicity (adverse effects on male reproductive organ weights and histopathology) were observed at doses ≥ 5 mg/kg/day. Delayed sexual maturation was noted in males and females at ≥10 mg/kg/day. The no-effect dose (2 mg/kg) was associated with plasma exposures (AUC) for eszopiclone and metabolite (S)-desmethylzopiclone [(S)-DMZ] approximately 2 times plasma exposures in humans at the maximum recommended dose (MRHD) in adults (3 mg/day). When eszopiclone (doses from 1 to 50 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to young dogs from weaning through sexual maturity, neurotoxicity (convulsions) was observed at doses ≥ 5 mg/kg/day. Hepatotoxicity (elevated liver enzymes and hepatocellular vacuolation and degeneration) and reproductive toxicity (adverse effects on male reproductive organ weights and histopathology) were noted at dose ≥10 mg/kg/day. The no-effect dose (1 mg/kg) was associated with plasma exposures (AUC) to eszopiclone and (S)-DMZ approximately 3 and 2 times, respectively, plasma exposures in humans at the MRHD in adults. 8.5 Geriatric Use A total of 287 subjects in double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trials who received eszopiclone were 65 to 86 years of age. The overall pattern of adverse events for elderly subjects (median age = 71 years) in 2-week studies with nighttime dosing of 2 mg eszopiclone was not different from that seen in younger adults [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. LUNESTA 2 mg exhibited significant reduction in sleep latency and improvement in sleep maintenance in the elderly population. Compared with non-elderly adults, subjects 65 years and older had longer elimination and higher total exposure to eszopiclone. Therefore, dose reduction is recommended in the elderly patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment. Exposure was increased in severely impaired patients compared with the healthy volunteers. The dose of LUNESTA should not exceed 2 mg in patients with severe hepatic impairment. LUNESTA should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.3), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].