1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE MAXALT® and MAXALT-MLT® are indicated for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults and in pediatric patients 6 to 17 years old. Limitations of Use MAXALT should only be used where a clear diagnosis of migraine has been established. If a patient has no response for the first migraine attack treated with MAXALT, the diagnosis of migraine should be reconsidered before MAXALT is administered to treat any subsequent attacks. MAXALT is not indicated for use in the management of hemiplegic or basilar migraine [see Contraindications (4)]. MAXALT is not indicated for the prevention of migraine attacks. Safety and effectiveness of MAXALT have not been established for cluster headache. MAXALT is a serotonin (5-HT) 1B/1D receptor agonist (triptan) indicated for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults and in pediatric patients 6 to 17 years of age (1) Limitations of Use: Use only after clear diagnosis of migraine has been established (1) Not indicated for the prophylactic therapy of migraine (1) Not indicated for the treatment of cluster headache (1)
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS MAXALT Tablets: 5 and 10 mg (3) MAXALT-MLT Orally Disintegrating Tablets: 5 and 10 mg (3) MAXALT Tablets 5 mg tablets are pale pink, capsule-shaped, compressed tablets coded MRK on one side and 266 on the other. 10 mg tablets are pale pink, capsule-shaped, compressed tablets coded MAXALT on one side and MRK 267 on the other. MAXALT-MLT Orally Disintegrating Tablets 5 mg orally disintegrating tablets are white to off-white, round lyophilized tablets debossed with a modified triangle on one side. 10 mg orally disintegrating tablets are white to off-white, round lyophilized tablets debossed with a modified square on one side.
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS MAXALT is contraindicated in patients with: Ischemic coronary artery disease (angina pectoris, history of myocardial infarction, or documented silent ischemia), or other significant underlying cardiovascular disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Coronary artery vasospasm including Prinzmetal's angina [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. History of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Ischemic bowel disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Uncontrolled hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]. Recent use (i.e., within 24 hours) of another 5-HT1 agonist, ergotamine-containing medication, or ergot-type medication (such as dihydroergotamine or methysergide) [see Drug Interactions (7.2 and 7.3)]. Hemiplegic or basilar migraine [see Indications and Usage (1)]. Concurrent administration or recent discontinuation (i.e., within 2 weeks) of a MAO-A inhibitor [see Drug Interactions (7.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Hypersensitivity to MAXALT or MAXALT-MLT (angioedema and anaphylaxis seen) [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. History of ischemic heart disease or coronary artery vasospasm (4) History of stroke or transient ischemic attack (4) Peripheral vascular disease (4) Ischemic bowel disease (4) Uncontrolled hypertension (4) Recent (within 24 hours) use of another 5-HT1 agonist (e.g., another triptan), or of an ergotamine-containing medication (4) Hemiplegic or basilar migraine (4) MAO-A inhibitor used in the past 2 weeks (4) Hypersensitivity to MAXALT or MAXALT-MLT (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, and Prinzmetal's angina: Perform cardiac evaluation in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors (5.1) Arrhythmias: Discontinue dosing if occurs (5.2) Chest/throat/neck/jaw pain, tightness, pressure, or heaviness; Generally not associated with myocardial ischemia; Evaluate patients at high risk (5.3) Cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke: Discontinue dosing if occurs (5.4) Gastrointestinal ischemic events, peripheral vasospastic reactions: Discontinue dosing if occurs (5.5) Medication overuse headache: Detoxification may be necessary (5.6) Serotonin syndrome: Discontinue dosing if occurs (5.7) 5.1 Myocardial Ischemia, Myocardial Infarction, and Prinzmetal's Angina MAXALT should not be given to patients with ischemic or vasospastic coronary artery disease. There have been rare reports of serious cardiac adverse reactions, including acute myocardial infarction, occurring within a few hours following administration of MAXALT. Some of these reactions occurred in patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD). 5-HT1 agonists, including MAXALT may cause coronary artery vasospasm (Prinzmetal's Angina), even in patients without a history of CAD. Triptan-naïve patients who have multiple cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., increased age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of CAD) should have a cardiovascular evaluation prior to receiving MAXALT. If there is evidence of CAD or coronary artery vasospasm, MAXALT should not be administered [see Contraindications (4)]. For patients who have a negative cardiovascular evaluation, consideration should be given to administration of the first MAXALT dose in a medically-supervised setting and performing an electrocardiogram (ECG) immediately following MAXALT administration. Periodic cardiovascular evaluation should be considered in intermittent long-term users of MAXALT who have cardiovascular risk factors. 5.2 Arrhythmias Life-threatening disturbances of cardiac rhythm, including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation leading to death, have been reported within a few hours following the administration of 5-HT1 agonists. Discontinue MAXALT if these disturbances occur. 5.3 Chest, Throat, Neck and/or Jaw Pain/Tightness/Pressure As with other 5-HT1 agonists, sensations of tightness, pain, pressure, and heaviness in the precordium, throat, neck and jaw commonly occur after treatment with MAXALT and are usually non-cardiac in origin. However, if a cardiac origin is suspected, patients should be evaluated. Patients shown to have CAD and those with Prinzmetal's variant angina should not receive 5-HT1 agonists. 5.4 Cerebrovascular Events Cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke have occurred in patients treated with 5-HT1 agonists, and some have resulted in fatalities. In a number of cases, it appears possible that the cerebrovascular events were primary, the 5-HT1 agonist having been administered in the incorrect belief that the symptoms experienced were a consequence of migraine, when they were not. Also, patients with migraine may be at increased risk of certain cerebrovascular events (e.g., stroke, hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack). Discontinue MAXALT if a cerebrovascular event occurs. As with other acute migraine therapies, before treating headaches in patients not previously diagnosed as migraineurs, and in migraineurs who present with atypical symptoms, care should be taken to exclude other potentially serious neurological conditions. MAXALT should not be administered to patients with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack [see Contraindications (4)]. 5.5 Other Vasospasm Reactions 5-HT1 agonists, including MAXALT, may cause non-coronary vasospastic reactions, such as peripheral vascular ischemia, gastrointestinal vascular ischemia and infarction (presenting with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea), splenic infarction, and Raynaud's syndrome. In patients who experience symptoms or signs suggestive of non-coronary vasospasm reaction following the use of any 5-HT1 agonist, the suspected vasospasm reaction should be ruled out before receiving additional MAXALT doses. Reports of transient and permanent blindness and significant partial vision loss have been reported with the use of 5-HT1 agonists. Since visual disorders may be part of a migraine attack, a causal relationship between these events and the use of 5-HT1 agonists have not been clearly established. 5.6 Medication Overuse Headache Overuse of acute migraine drugs (e.g., ergotamine, triptans, opioids, or a combination of drugs for 10 or more days per month) may lead to exacerbation of headache (medication overuse headache). Medication overuse headache may present as migraine-like daily headaches, or as a marked increase in frequency of migraine attacks. Detoxification of patients, including withdrawal of the overused drugs, and treatment of withdrawal symptoms (which often includes a transient worsening of headache) may be necessary. 5.7 Serotonin Syndrome Serotonin syndrome may occur with triptans, including MAXALT particularly during co-administration with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and MAO inhibitors [see Drug Interactions (7.5)]. Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination) and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). The onset of symptoms can occur within minutes to hours of receiving a new or a greater dose of a serotonergic medication. MAXALT treatment should be discontinued if serotonin syndrome is suspected [see Drug Interactions (7.4) and Patient Counseling Information (17)]. 5.8 Increase in Blood Pressure Significant elevation in blood pressure, including hypertensive crisis with acute impairment of organ systems, has been reported on rare occasions in patients with and without a history of hypertension receiving 5-HT1 agonists, including MAXALT. In healthy young adult male and female patients who received maximal doses of MAXALT (10 mg every 2 hours for 3 doses), slight increases in blood pressure (approximately 2-3 mmHg) were observed. MAXALT is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled hypertension [see Contraindications (4)].
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling: Myocardial Ischemia, Myocardial Infarction, and Prinzmetal's Angina [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Arrhythmias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Chest, Throat, Neck and/or Jaw Pain/Tightness/Pressure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Cerebrovascular Events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Other Vasospasm Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Medication Overuse Headache [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. Serotonin Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Increase in Blood Pressure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]. The most common adverse reactions in adults were (incidence ≥5% and greater than placebo): asthenia/fatigue, somnolence, pain/pressure sensation and dizziness (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., at 1-877-888-4231 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Adults Incidence in Controlled Clinical Trials Adverse reactions to MAXALT were assessed in controlled clinical trials that included over 3700 adult patients who received single or multiple doses of MAXALT Tablets. The most common adverse reactions during treatment with MAXALT (≥5% in either treatment group and greater than placebo) were asthenia/fatigue, somnolence, pain/pressure sensation and dizziness. These adverse reactions appeared to be dose related. Table 1 lists the adverse reactions (incidence ≥2% and greater than placebo) after a single dose of MAXALT in adults. Table 1: Incidence (≥2% and Greater than Placebo) of Adverse Reactions After a Single Dose of MAXALT Tablets or Placebo in Adults % of Patients Adverse Reactions MAXALT 5 mg (N=977) MAXALT 10 mg (N=1167) Placebo (N=627) Atypical Sensations 4 5 4 Paresthesia 3 4 <2 Pain and other Pressure Sensations 6 9 3 Chest Pain: tightness/pressure and/or heaviness <2 3 1 Neck/throat/jaw: pain/tightness/pressure <2 2 1 Regional Pain: tightness/pressure and/or heaviness <1 2 0 Pain, location unspecified 3 3 <2 Digestive 9 13 8 Dry Mouth 3 3 1 Nausea 4 6 4 Neurological 14 20 11 Dizziness 4 9 5 Headache <2 2 <1 Somnolence 4 8 4 Other Asthenia/fatigue 4 7 2 The frequencies of adverse reactions in clinical trials did not increase when up to three doses were taken within 24 hours. Adverse reaction frequencies were also unchanged by concomitant use of drugs commonly taken for migraine prophylaxis (including propranolol), oral contraceptives, or analgesics. The incidences of adverse reactions were not affected by age or gender. There were insufficient data to assess the impact of race on the incidence of adverse reactions. Other Events Observed in Association with the Administration of MAXALT in Adults In the following section, the frequencies of less commonly reported adverse events are presented that were not reported in other sections of the labeling. Because the reports include events observed in open studies, the role of MAXALT in their causation cannot be reliably determined. Furthermore, variability associated with adverse event reporting, the terminology used to describe adverse events, limit the value of the quantitative frequency estimates provided. Event frequencies are calculated as the number of patients who used MAXALT and reported an event divided by the total number of patients exposed to MAXALT (N=3716). All reported events occurred at an incidence ≥1%, or are believed to be reasonably associated with the use of the drug. Events are further classified within body system categories and enumerated in order of decreasing frequency using the following definitions: frequent adverse events are those defined as those occurring in at least (>)1/100 patients; infrequent adverse experiences are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; and rare adverse experiences are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients. General: Infrequent was facial edema. Rare were syncope and edema/swelling. Atypical Sensations: Frequent were warm sensations. Cardiovascular: Frequent was palpitation. Infrequent were tachycardia, cold extremities, and bradycardia. Digestive: Frequent were diarrhea and vomiting. Infrequent were dyspepsia, tongue edema and abdominal distention. Musculoskeletal: Infrequent were muscle weakness, stiffness, myalgia and muscle cramp/spasm. Neurological/Psychiatric: Frequent were hypoesthesia, euphoria and tremor. Infrequent were vertigo, insomnia, confusion/disorientation, gait abnormality, memory impairment, and agitation. Respiratory: Frequent was dyspnea. Infrequent was pharyngeal edema. Special Senses: Infrequent were blurred vision and tinnitus. Rare was eye swelling. Skin and Skin Appendage: Frequent was flushing. Infrequent were sweating, pruritus, rash, and urticaria. Rare was erythema, hot flashes. The adverse reaction profile seen with MAXALT-MLT Orally Disintegrating Tablets was similar to that seen with MAXALT Tablets. Pediatric Patients 6 to 17 Years of Age Incidence in Controlled Clinical Trials in Pediatric Patients Adverse reactions to MAXALT-MLT were assessed in a controlled clinical trial in the acute treatment of migraines (Study 7) that included a total of 1382 pediatric patients 6-17 years of age, of which 977 (72%) administered at least one dose of study treatment (MAXALT-MLT and/or placebo) [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. The incidence of adverse reactions reported for pediatric patients in the acute clinical trial was similar in patients who received MAXALT to those who received placebo. The adverse reaction pattern in pediatric patients is expected to be similar to that in adults. Other Events Observed in Association with the Administration of MAXALT-MLT in Pediatric Patients In the following section, the frequencies of less commonly reported adverse events are presented. Because the reports include events observed in open studies, the role of MAXALT-MLT in their causation cannot be reliably determined. Furthermore, variability associated with adverse event reporting, the terminology used to describe adverse events, limit the value of the quantitative frequency estimates provided. Event frequencies are calculated as the number of pediatric patients 6 to 17 years of age who used MAXALT-MLT and reported an event divided by the total number of patients exposed to MAXALT-MLT (N=1068). All reported events occurred at an incidence ≥1%, or are believed to be reasonably associated with the use of the drug. Events are further classified within system organ class and enumerated in order of decreasing frequency using the following definitions: frequent adverse events are those occurring in (>)1/100 pediatric patients; infrequent adverse experiences are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 pediatric patients; and rare adverse experiences are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients. General: Frequent was fatigue. Ear and labyrinth disorders: Infrequent was hypoacusis. Gastrointestinal disorders: Frequent was abdominal discomfort. Nervous system disorders: Infrequent were coordination abnormal, disturbance in attention, and presyncope. Psychiatric disorders: Infrequent was hallucination. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following section enumerates potentially important adverse events that have occurred in clinical practice and which have been reported spontaneously to various surveillance systems. The events enumerated include all except those already listed in other sections of the labeling or those too general to be informative. Because the reports cite events reported spontaneously from worldwide postmarketing experience, frequency of events and the role of MAXALT in their causation cannot be reliably determined. Neurological/Psychiatric: Seizure. General: Allergic conditions including anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reaction, angioedema, wheezing, and toxic epidermal necrolysis [see Contraindications (4)]. Special Senses: Dysgeusia.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS 7.1 Propranolol The dose of MAXALT should be adjusted in propranolol-treated patients, as propranolol has been shown to increase the plasma AUC of rizatriptan by 70% [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 7.2 Ergot-Containing Drugs Ergot-containing drugs have been reported to cause prolonged vasospastic reactions. Because these effects may be additive, use of ergotamine-containing or ergot-type medications (like dihydroergotamine or methysergide) and MAXALT within 24 hours is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)]. 7.3 Other 5-HT1 Agonists Because their vasospastic effects may be additive, co-administration of MAXALT and other 5-HT1 agonists within 24 hours of each other is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)]. 7.4 SSRIs/SNRIs and Serotonin Syndrome Cases of serotonin syndrome have been reported during co-administration of triptans and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. 7.5 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors MAXALT is contraindicated in patients taking MAO-A inhibitors and non-selective MAO inhibitors. A specific MAO-A inhibitor increased the systemic exposure of rizatriptan and its metabolite [see Contraindications (4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: Based on animal data, may cause fetal harm (8.1) Phenylketonurics: MAXALT-MLT contains phenylalanine (8.6) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. MAXALT should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. In a general reproductive study in rats, birth weights and pre- and post-weaning weight gain were reduced in the offspring of females treated prior to and during mating and throughout gestation and lactation with doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg/day. In a pre- and post-natal developmental toxicity study in rats, an increase in mortality of the offspring at birth and for the first three days after birth, a decrease in pre- and post-weaning weight gain, and decreased performance in a passive avoidance test (which indicates a decrease in learning capacity of the offspring) were observed at doses of 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. The no-effect dose for all of these effects was 5 mg/kg/day, associated with a maternal plasma exposure (AUC) approximately 7.5 times that in humans receiving the MRDD. With doses of 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, the decreases in average weight of both the male and female offspring persisted into adulthood. All effects on the offspring in both studies occurred in the absence of any apparent maternal toxicity. In embryofetal development studies, no teratogenic effects were observed when pregnant rats and rabbits were administered doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg/day, respectively, during organogenesis. Fetal weights were decreased in conjunction with decreased maternal weight gain at the highest doses tested. The developmental no-effect dose in these studies was 10 mg/kg/day in both rats and rabbits (maternal exposures approximately 15 times human exposure at the MRDD). Toxicokinetic studies demonstrated placental transfer of drug in both species. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., maintains a registry to monitor the pregnancy outcomes of women exposed to MAXALT while pregnant. Healthcare providers are encouraged to report any prenatal exposure to MAXALT by calling the Pregnancy Registry at 1-800-986-8999. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when MAXALT is administered to a nursing woman. Rizatriptan is extensively excreted in rat milk, with levels in milk at least 5-fold higher than levels in maternal plasma. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients under 6 years of age have not been established. The efficacy and safety of MAXALT in the acute treatment of migraine in patients aged 6 to 17 years was established in an adequate and well-controlled study [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. The incidence of adverse reactions reported for pediatric patients in the acute clinical trial was similar in patients who received MAXALT to those who received placebo. The adverse reaction pattern in pediatric patients is expected to be similar to that in adults. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of MAXALT did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. Although the pharmacokinetics of rizatriptan were similar in elderly (aged ≥65 years) and in younger adults (n=17), in general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, starting at the low end of the dosing range. This reflects the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Geriatric patients who have other cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, strong family history of coronary artery disease) should have a cardiovascular evaluation prior to receiving MAXALT [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. 8.6 Patients with Phenylketonuria Orally Disintegrating Tablets contain phenylalanine (a component of aspartame). The 5- and 10-mg orally disintegrating tablets contain 1.1 and 2.1 mg phenylalanine, respectively.