WARNING: CIGARETTE SMOKING AND SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events from combination hormonal contraceptive (CHC) use. This risk increases with age, particularly in women over 35 years of age, and with the number of cigarettes smoked. For this reason, CHCs, including NuvaRing, should not be used by women who are over 35 years of age and smoke. [See Contraindications (4).] WARNING: CIGARETTE SMOKING AND SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Women over 35 years old who smoke should not use NuvaRing. (4) Cigarette smoking increases the risk of serious cardiovascular events from combination hormonal contraceptive (CHC) use. (4)
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE FOR VAGINAL USE ONLY NuvaRing® is indicated for use by females of reproductive age to prevent pregnancy. NuvaRing is an estrogen/progestin combination hormonal contraceptive (CHC) indicated for use by women to prevent pregnancy. (1)
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS NuvaRing (etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring) is a non-biodegradable, flexible, transparent, colorless to almost colorless, combination contraceptive vaginal ring, with an outer diameter of 54 mm and a cross-sectional diameter of 4 mm. It is made of ethylene vinylacetate copolymers and magnesium stearate, and contains 11.7 mg etonogestrel and 2.7 mg ethinyl estradiol. When placed in the vagina, each ring releases on average 0.120 mg/day of etonogestrel and 0.015 mg/day of ethinyl estradiol over a three-week period of use. NuvaRing is not made with natural rubber latex. NuvaRing is a polymeric vaginal ring containing 11.7 mg etonogestrel and 2.7 mg ethinyl estradiol, which releases on average 0.12 mg/day of etonogestrel and 0.015 mg/day of ethinyl estradiol. (3)
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Do not prescribe NuvaRing to women who are known to have the following: A high risk of arterial or venous thrombotic diseases. Examples include women who are known to: Smoke, if over age 35 [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Have deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, now or in the past [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Have cerebrovascular disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Have coronary artery disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Have thrombogenic valvular or thrombogenic rhythm diseases of the heart (for example, subacute bacterial endocarditis with valvular disease, or atrial fibrillation) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Have inherited or acquired hypercoagulopathies [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Have uncontrolled hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Have diabetes mellitus with vascular disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] Have headaches with focal neurological symptoms or migraine headaches with aura [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] Women over age 35 with any migraine headaches [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] Liver tumors, benign or malignant or liver disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Use in Specific Populations (8.7)] Undiagnosed abnormal uterine bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)] Pregnancy, because there is no reason to use CHCs during pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1)] Breast cancer or other estrogen- or progestin-sensitive cancer, now or in the past [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)] Hypersensitivity to any of the components of NuvaRing [see Adverse Reactions (6)] A high risk of arterial or venous thrombotic diseases (4) Breast cancer or other estrogen- or progestin-sensitive cancer (4) Liver tumors or liver disease (4) Undiagnosed abnormal uterine bleeding (4) Pregnancy (4) Hypersensitivity to any of the components of NuvaRing (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Vascular risks: Stop NuvaRing use if a thrombotic event occurs. Stop NuvaRing use at least 4 weeks before and through 2 weeks after major surgery. Start no earlier than 4 weeks after delivery, in women who are not breastfeeding. (5.1) Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS): If patient exhibits signs or symptoms of TSS, consider the possibility of this diagnosis and initiate appropriate medical evaluation and treatment. (5.2) Liver disease: Discontinue NuvaRing use if jaundice develops. (5.3) High blood pressure: If used in women with well-controlled hypertension, monitor blood pressure and stop NuvaRing use if blood pressure rises significantly. (5.4) Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic effects: Monitor prediabetic and diabetic women. Consider an alternate contraceptive method for women with uncontrolled dyslipidemia. (5.7) Headache: Evaluate significant change in headaches and discontinue NuvaRing use if indicated. (5.8) Uterine bleeding: Evaluate irregular bleeding or amenorrhea. (5.9) 5.1 Thromboembolic Disorders and Other Vascular Problems Stop NuvaRing use if an arterial thrombotic or venous thromboembolic event (VTE) occurs. Stop NuvaRing use if there is unexplained loss of vision, proptosis, diplopia, papilledema, or retinal vascular lesions. Evaluate for retinal vein thrombosis immediately. [See Adverse Reactions (6).] If feasible, stop NuvaRing at least four weeks before and through two weeks after major surgery or other surgeries known to have an elevated risk of thromboembolism, and during and following prolonged immobilization. Start NuvaRing no earlier than 4 weeks after delivery, in women who are not breastfeeding. The risk of postpartum thromboembolism decreases after the third postpartum week, whereas the risk of ovulation increases after the third postpartum week. The use of CHCs increases the risk of VTE. Known risk factors for VTE include smoking, obesity, and family history of VTE, in addition to other factors that contraindicate use of CHCs [see Contraindications (4)]. Two epidemiologic studies1, 2, 3 that assessed the risk of VTE associated with the use of NuvaRing are described below. In these studies, which were required or sponsored by regulatory agencies, NuvaRing users had a risk of VTE similar to COC users (see Table 1 for adjusted hazard ratios). A large prospective, observational study, the Transatlantic Active Surveillance on Cardiovascular Safety of NuvaRing (TASC), investigated the risk of VTE for new users, and women who were switching to or restarting NuvaRing or COCs in a population that is representative of routine clinical users. The women were followed for 24 to 48 months. The results showed a similar risk of VTE among NuvaRing users (VTE incidence 8.3 per 10,000 WY) and women using COCs (VTE incidence 9.2 per 10,000 WY). For women using COCs that did not contain the progestins desogestrel (DSG) or gestodene (GSD), VTE incidence was 8.9 per 10,000 WY. A retrospective cohort study using data from 4 health plans in the US (FDA-funded Study in Kaiser Permanente and Medicaid databases) showed the VTE incidence for new users of NuvaRing to be 11.4 events per 10,000 WY, for new users of a levonorgestrel (LNG)-containing COC 9.2 events per 10,000 WY, and for users of other COCs available during the course of the studyIncludes low-dose COCs containing the following progestins: norgestimate, norethindrone, or levonorgestrel. 8.2 events per 10,000 WY. Table 1: Estimates (Hazard Ratios) of Venous Thromboembolism Risk in Users of NuvaRing Compared to Users of Combined Oral Contraceptives (COCs) Epidemiologic Study (Author, Year of Publication) Population Studied Comparator Product(s) Hazard Ratios (HR) (95% CI) TASC (Dinger, 2012) Initiators, including new users, switchers and restarters All COCs available during the course of the study Includes low-dose COCs containing the following progestins: chlormadinone acetate, cyproterone acetate, desogestrel, dienogest, drospirenone, ethynodiol diacetate, gestodene, levonorgestrel, norethindrone, norgestimate, or norgestrel COCs available excluding DSG- or GSD -containing OCs HRAdjusted for age, BMI, duration of use, VTE history: 0.8 (0.5-1.5) HR: 0.8 (0.4-1.7) FDA-funded Study in Kaiser Permanente and Medicaid databases (Sidney, 2011) First use of a combined hormonal contraceptive (CHC) during the study period COCs available during the course of the studyIncludes low-dose COCs containing the following progestins: norgestimate, norethindrone, or levonorgestrel HRAdjusted for age, site, year of entry into study: 1.1 (0.6-2.2) LNG/0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol HR: 1.0 (0.5-2.0) An increased risk of thromboembolic and thrombotic disease associated with the use of CHCs is well-established. Although the absolute VTE rates are increased for users of CHCs compared to non-users, the rates associated with pregnancy are even greater, especially during the post-partum period (see Figure 1). The frequency of VTE in women using CHCs has been estimated to be 3 to 12 cases per 10,000 women-years. The risk of VTE is highest during the first year of CHC use and after restarting a CHC following a break of at least four weeks. The risk of VTE due to CHCs gradually disappears after use is discontinued. Figure 1 shows the risk of developing a VTE for women who are not pregnant and do not use CHCs, for women who use CHCs, for pregnant women, and for women in the postpartum period. To put the risk of developing a VTE into perspective: If 10,000 women who are not pregnant and do not use CHCs are followed for one year, between 1 and 5 of these women will develop a VTE. Figure 1: Likelihood of Developing a VTE *CHC=combination hormonal contraception **Pregnancy data based on actual duration of pregnancy in the reference studies. Based on a model assumption that pregnancy duration is nine months, the rate is 7 to 27 per 10,000 WY. Several epidemiology studies indicate that third generation oral contraceptives, including those containing desogestrel (etonogestrel, the progestin in NuvaRing, is the biologically active metabolite of desogestrel), may be associated with a higher risk of VTE than oral contraceptives containing other progestins. Some of these studies indicate an approximate two-fold increased risk. However, data from other studies have not shown this two-fold increase in risk. Use of CHCs also increases the risk of arterial thromboses such as strokes and myocardial infarctions, especially in women with other risk factors for these events. CHCs have been shown to increase both the relative and attributable risks of cerebrovascular events (thrombotic and hemorrhagic strokes). In general, the risk is greatest among older (>35 years of age), hypertensive women who also smoke. Use NuvaRing with caution in women with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Figure 1 5.2 Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) Cases of TSS have been reported by NuvaRing users. TSS has been associated with tampons and certain barrier contraceptives, and, in some cases the NuvaRing users were also using tampons. A causal relationship between the use of NuvaRing and TSS has not been established. If a patient exhibits signs or symptoms of TSS, consider the possibility of this diagnosis and initiate appropriate medical evaluation and treatment. 5.3 Liver Disease Impaired Liver Function Do not use NuvaRing in women with liver disease such as acute viral hepatitis or severe (decompensated) cirrhosis of the liver [see Contraindications (4)]. Acute or chronic disturbances of liver function may necessitate the discontinuation of CHC use until markers of liver function return to normal and CHC causation has been excluded [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)]. Discontinue NuvaRing use if jaundice develops. Liver Tumors NuvaRing is contraindicated in women with benign and malignant liver tumors [see Contraindications (4)]. Hepatic adenomas are associated with CHC use. An estimate of the attributable risk is 3.3 cases per 100,000 CHC users. Rupture of hepatic adenomas may cause death through intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Studies have shown an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in long term (>8 years) CHC users. However, the attributable risk of liver cancers in CHC users is less than one case per million users. 5.4 High Blood Pressure NuvaRing is contraindicated in women with uncontrolled hypertension or hypertension with vascular disease [see Contraindications (4)]. For women with well-controlled hypertension, monitor blood pressure and stop NuvaRing use if blood pressure rises significantly. An increase in blood pressure has been reported in women using CHCs and this increase is more likely in older women and with extended duration of use. The incidence of hypertension increases with increasing concentrations of progestin. 5.5 Vaginal Use NuvaRing may not be suitable for women with conditions that make the vagina more susceptible to vaginal irritation or ulceration. Vaginal/cervical erosion or ulceration in women using NuvaRing has been reported. In some cases, the ring adhered to vaginal tissue, necessitating removal by a healthcare provider. Some women are aware of the ring on occasion during the 21 days of use or during intercourse, and sexual partners may feel NuvaRing in the vagina. 5.6 Gallbladder Disease Studies suggest a small increased relative risk of developing gallbladder disease among CHC users. Use of CHCs may also worsen existing gallbladder disease. A past history of CHC-related cholestasis predicts an increased risk with subsequent CHC use. Women with a history of pregnancy-related cholestasis may be at an increased risk for CHC-related cholestasis. 5.7 Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolic Effects Carefully monitor prediabetic and diabetic women who are using NuvaRing. CHCs may decrease glucose tolerance. Consider alternative contraception for women with uncontrolled dyslipidemia. Some women will have adverse lipid changes while on CHCs. Women with hypertriglyceridemia, or a family history thereof, may be at an increased risk of pancreatitis when using CHCs. 5.8 Headache If a woman using NuvaRing develops new headaches that are recurrent, persistent, or severe, evaluate the cause and discontinue NuvaRing if indicated. Consider discontinuation of NuvaRing in the case of an increased frequency or severity of migraine during CHC use (which may be prodromal of a cerebrovascular event) [see Contraindications (4)]. 5.9 Bleeding Irregularities and Amenorrhea Unscheduled Bleeding and Spotting Unscheduled bleeding (breakthrough or intracyclic) bleeding and spotting sometimes occur in women using CHCs, especially during the first three months of use. If bleeding persists or occurs after previously regular cycles, check for causes such as pregnancy or malignancy. If pathology and pregnancy are excluded, bleeding irregularities may resolve over time or with a change to a different CHC. Bleeding patterns were evaluated in three large clinical studies. In the North American study (US and Canada, N=1,177), the percentages of subjects with breakthrough bleeding/spotting ranged from 7.2% to 11.7% during cycles 1-13. In the two non-US studies, the percentages of subjects with breakthrough bleeding/spotting ranged from 2.6% to 6.4% (Europe, N=1,145) and from 2.0% to 8.7% (Europe, Brazil, Chile, N=512). Amenorrhea and Oligomenorrhea If scheduled (withdrawal) bleeding does not occur, consider the possibility of pregnancy. If the patient has not adhered to the prescribed dosing schedule, consider the possibility of pregnancy at the time of the first missed period and take appropriate diagnostic measures. Occasional missed periods may occur with the appropriate use of NuvaRing. In the clinical studies, the percent of women who did not have withdrawal bleeding in a given cycle ranged from 0.3% to 3.8%. If the patient has adhered to the prescribed regimen and misses two consecutive periods, rule out pregnancy. Some women may experience amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea after discontinuing CHC use, especially when such a condition was pre-existent. 5.10 Inadvertent Urinary Bladder Insertion There have been reports of inadvertent insertions of NuvaRing into the urinary bladder, which required cystoscopic removal. Assess for ring insertion into the urinary bladder in NuvaRing users who present with persistent urinary symptoms and are unable to locate the ring. 5.11 CHC Use Before or During Early Pregnancy Extensive epidemiological studies have revealed no increased risk of birth defects in women who have used oral contraceptives prior to pregnancy. Studies also do not suggest a teratogenic effect, particularly in so far as cardiac anomalies and limb reduction defects are concerned, when taken inadvertently during early pregnancy. Discontinue NuvaRing if pregnancy is confirmed. 5.12 Depression Carefully observe women with a history of depression and discontinue NuvaRing use if depression recurs to a serious degree. 5.13 Carcinoma of the Breasts and Cervix NuvaRing is contraindicated in women who currently have or have had breast cancer because breast cancer is a hormonally-sensitive tumor [see Contraindications (4)]. There is substantial evidence that CHCs do not increase the incidence of breast cancer. Although some past studies have suggested that CHCs might increase the incidence of breast cancer, more recent studies have not confirmed such findings. Some studies suggest that CHCs are associated with an increase in the risk of cervical cancer or intraepithelial neoplasia. However, there is controversy about the extent to which these findings may be due to differences in sexual behavior and other factors. 5.14 Effect on Binding Globulins The estrogen component of CHCs may raise the serum concentrations of thyroxine-binding globulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, and cortisol-binding globulin. The dose of replacement thyroid hormones or cortisol therapy may need to be increased. 5.15 Monitoring A woman who is using NuvaRing should have a yearly visit with her healthcare provider for a blood pressure check and for other indicated healthcare. 5.16 Hereditary Angioedema In women with hereditary angioedema, exogenous estrogens may induce or exacerbate symptoms of angioedema. 5.17 Chloasma Chloasma may occasionally occur, especially in women with a history of chloasma gravidarum. Women with a tendency to chloasma should avoid exposure to the sun or ultraviolet radiation while using NuvaRing.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions with the use of CHCs are discussed elsewhere in the labeling. Serious cardiovascular events and stroke [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Vascular events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Liver disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Adverse reactions commonly reported by CHC users are: Irregular uterine bleeding Nausea Breast tenderness Headache The most common adverse reactions (≥2%) in clinical trials were: vaginitis, headache (including migraine), mood changes (e.g., depression, mood swings, mood altered, depressed mood, affect lability), device-related events (e.g., expulsion/discomfort/foreign body sensation), nausea/vomiting, vaginal discharge, increased weight, vaginal discomfort, breast pain/discomfort/tenderness, dysmenorrhea, abdominal pain, acne, and decreased libido. (6) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Merck, Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., at 1-877-888-4231 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Trials with a duration of 6 to 13 28-day cycles provided safety data. In total, 2,501 women, aged 18 to 41 contributed 24,520 cycles of exposure. Common Adverse Reactions (≥ 2%): vaginitis (13.8%), headache (including migraine) (11.2%), mood changes (e.g., depression, mood swings, mood altered, depressed mood, affect lability) (6.4%), device-related events (e.g., expulsion/discomfort/foreign body sensation) (6.3%), nausea/vomiting (5.9%), vaginal discharge (5.7%), increased weight (4.9%), vaginal discomfort (4.0%), breast pain/discomfort/tenderness (3.8%), dysmenorrhea (3.5%), abdominal pain (3.2%), acne (2.4%), and decreased libido (2.0%). Adverse Reactions (≥ 1%) Leading to Study Discontinuation: 13.0% of the women discontinued from the clinical trials due to an adverse reaction; the most common adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were device-related events (2.7%), mood changes (1.7%), headache (including migraine) (1.5%) and vaginal symptoms (1.2%). Serious Adverse Reactions: deep vein thrombosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)], anxiety, cholelithiasis, and vomiting. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of NuvaRing. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Immune system disorders: hypersensitivity Nervous system disorders: stroke/cerebrovascular accident Vascular disorders: arterial events (including arterial thromboembolism and myocardial infarction), aggravation of varicose veins Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: urticaria, chloasma Reproductive system and breast disorders: penile disorders, including local reactions on penis (in male partners of women using NuvaRing), galactorrhea
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Consult the labeling of all concurrently-used drugs to obtain further information about interactions with hormonal contraceptives or the potential for enzyme alterations. Drugs or herbal products that induce certain enzymes, such as CYP3A4, may decrease the effectiveness of CHCs or increase breakthrough bleeding. Counsel patients to use a back-up or alternative method of contraception when enzyme inducers are used with CHCs. (7) 7.1 Effects of Other Drugs on CHCs Substances decreasing the plasma concentrations of CHCs and potentially diminishing the effectiveness of CHCs Drugs or herbal products that induce certain enzymes, including cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), may decrease the plasma concentrations of CHCs and potentially diminish the effectiveness of CHCs or increase breakthrough bleeding. Some drugs or herbal products that may decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives include: phenytoin, barbiturates, carbamazepine, bosentan, felbamate, griseofulvin, oxcarbazepine, rifampicin, topiramate, rifabutin, rufinamide, aprepitant, and products containing St. John's wort. Interactions between CHCs and other drugs may lead to breakthrough bleeding and/or contraceptive failure. Counsel women to use an alternative method of contraception or a back-up method when enzyme inducers are used with NuvaRing, and to continue back-up contraception for 28 days after discontinuing the enzyme inducer to ensure contraceptive reliability. The serum concentrations of etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol were not affected by concomitant administration of oral amoxicillin or doxycycline in standard dosages during 10 days of antibiotic treatment. The effects of other antibiotics on etonogestrel or ethinyl estradiol concentrations have not been evaluated. Substances increasing the plasma concentrations of CHCs Co-administration of atorvastatin and certain CHCs containing ethinyl estradiol increase AUC values for ethinyl estradiol by approximately 20-25%. Ascorbic acid and acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. CYP3A4 inhibitors such as itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, grapefruit juice, or ketoconazole may increase plasma hormone concentrations. Co-administration of vaginal miconazole nitrate and NuvaRing increases the serum concentrations of etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol by up to 40% [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: Significant changes in the plasma concentrations of the estrogen and /or progestin have been noted in some cases of co-administration with HIV protease inhibitors (decrease [e.g., nelfinavir, ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, (fos)amprenavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and tipranavir/ritonavir] or increase [e.g., indinavir and atazanavir/ritonavir]) /HCV protease inhibitors (decrease [e.g., boceprevir and telaprevir]) or with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (decrease [e.g., nevirapine] or increase [e.g., etravirine]). 7.2 Effects of CHCs on Other Drugs CHCs containing ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds (e.g., cyclosporine, prednisolone, theophylline, tizanidine, and voriconazole) and increase their plasma concentrations. CHCs have been shown to decrease plasma concentrations of acetaminophen, clofibric acid, morphine, salicylic acid and temazepam. A significant decrease in the plasma concentrations of lamotrigine has been shown, likely due to induction of lamotrigine glucuronidation. This may reduce seizure control, therefore, dosage adjustments of lamotrigine may be necessary. Women on thyroid hormone replacement therapy may need increased doses of thyroid hormone because serum concentrations of thyroid-binding globulin increase with use of CHCs. 7.3 Interference with Laboratory Tests The use of contraceptive steroids may influence the results of certain laboratory tests, such as coagulation factors, lipids, glucose tolerance, and binding proteins.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Nursing mothers: Not recommended; can decrease milk production. (8.3) 8.1 Pregnancy There is little or no increased risk of birth defects in women who inadvertently use CHCs during early pregnancy. Epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses have not found an increased risk of genital or non-genital birth defects (including cardiac anomalies and limb-reduction defects) following exposure to low dose CHCs prior to conception or during early pregnancy. The administration of CHCs to induce withdrawal bleeding should not be used as a test for pregnancy. CHCs should not be used during pregnancy to treat threatened or habitual abortion. 8.3 Nursing Mothers The effects of NuvaRing in nursing mothers have not been evaluated and are unknown. When possible, advise the nursing mother to use other forms of contraception until she has completely weaned her child. CHCs can reduce milk production in breastfeeding mothers. This is less likely to occur once breastfeeding is well-established; however, it can occur at any time in some women. Small amounts of contraceptive steroids and/or metabolites are present in breast milk. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and efficacy of NuvaRing have been established in women of reproductive age. Efficacy is expected to be the same for postpubertal adolescents under the age of 18 and for users 18 years and older. Use of this product before menarche is not indicated. 8.5 Geriatric Use NuvaRing has not been studied in postmenopausal women and is not indicated in this population. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of NuvaRing has not been studied. Steroid hormones may be poorly metabolized in patients with impaired liver function. Acute or chronic disturbances of liver function may necessitate the discontinuation of CHC use until markers of liver function return to normal. [See Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.3).] 8.7 Renal Impairment The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of NuvaRing has not been studied.