1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor indicated for: Treatment in adults of duodenal ulcer (1.1) and gastric ulcer. (1.2) Treatment in adults and children of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (1.3) and maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis. (1.4) Pathologic Hypersecretory Conditions (1.5) The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole in pediatric patients <1 year of age have not been established. (8.4) 1.1 Duodenal Ulcer (adults) Omeprazole delayed-release capsules, USP are indicated for short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer in adults. Most patients heal within four weeks. Some patients may require an additional four weeks of therapy. Omeprazole delayed-release capsules, USP in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin, are indicated for treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or up to 1-year history) to eradicate H. pylori in adults. Omeprazole delayed-release capsules, USP in combination with clarithromycin are indicated for treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease to eradicate H. pylori in adults. Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence [see Clinical Studies (14.1) and Dosage and Administration (2)]. Among patients who fail therapy, omeprazole delayed-release capsules, USP with clarithromycin are more likely to be associated with the development of clarithromycin resistance as compared with triple therapy. In patients who fail therapy, susceptibility testing should be done. If resistance to clarithromycin is demonstrated or susceptibility testing is not possible, alternative antimicrobial therapy should be instituted [see Microbiology section (12.4)], and the clarithromycin package insert, Microbiology section. 1.2 Gastric Ulcer (adults) Omeprazole delayed-release capsules, USP are indicated for short-term treatment (4 to 8 weeks) of active benign gastric ulcer in adults [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. 1.3 Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) (adults and pediatric patients) Symptomatic GERD Omeprazole delayed-release capsules, USP are indicated for the treatment of heartburn and other symptoms associated with GERD in pediatric patients and adults for up to 4 weeks. Erosive Esophagitis Omeprazole delayed-release capsules, USP are indicated for the short-term treatment (4 to 8 weeks) of erosive esophagitis that has been diagnosed by endoscopy in pediatric patients and adults [see Clinical Studies (14.4)]. The efficacy of omeprazole delayed-release capsules, USP used for longer than 8 weeks in these patients has not been established. If a patient does not respond to 8 weeks of treatment, an additional 4 weeks of treatment may be given. If there is recurrence of erosive esophagitis or GERD symptoms (e.g., heartburn), additional 4 to 8 week courses of omeprazole may be considered. 1.4 Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis (adults and pediatric patients) Omeprazole delayed-release capsules, USP are indicated to maintain healing of erosive esophagitis in pediatric patients and adults. Controlled studies do not extend beyond 12 months [see Clinical Studies (14.4)]. 1.5 Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions (adults) Omeprazole delayed-release capsules, USP are indicated for the long-term treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions (e.g., Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, multiple endocrine adenomas and systemic mastocytosis) in adults.
|*studied for 12 months **4 to 8 weeks |
| Indication || Omeprazole Dose || Frequency |
| Treatment of Active Duodenal Ulcer (2.1) ||20 mg ||Once daily for 4 weeks. Some patients may require an additional 4 weeks |
| H. pylori Eradication to Reduce the Risk of Duodenal Ulcer Recurrence (2.2) |
| Triple Therapy: || || |
|Omeprazole || 20 mg || Each drug twice daily for 10 days |
|Amoxicillin || 1000 mg |
|Clarithromycin || 500 mg |
| Dual Therapy : || || |
|Omeprazole || 40 mg || Once daily for 14 days |
|Clarithromycin || 500 mg || Three times daily for 14 days |
| Gastric Ulcer (2.3) || 40 mg || Once daily for 4 to 8 weeks |
| GERD (2.4) || 20 mg || Once daily for 4 to 8 weeks |
| Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis (2.5) || 20 mg || Once daily* |
| Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions (2.6) || 60 mg (varies with individual patient) || Once daily |
| Pediatric Patients (2 to 16 years of age) (2.7) ||Weight ||Dose || |
| GERD** And Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis ||10 < 20 kg ||10 mg ||Once daily |
| > 20 kg ||20 mg |
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules , 10 mg are pink/pink size ‘3’ hard gelatin capsule filled with white to off-white enteric-coated granules and imprinted with ‘E’ on pink cap and ‘65’ on pink body with black ink. Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules , 20 mg are reddish brown/pink size ‘1’ hard gelatin capsule filled with white to off-white enteric-coated granules and imprinted with ‘E’ on reddish brown cap and ‘67’ on pink body with black ink. Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules , 40 mg are reddish brown/reddish brown size ‘0’ hard gelatin capsule filled with white to off-white enteric-coated granules and imprinted with ‘E’ on reddish brown cap and ‘69’ on reddish brown body with black ink. Omeprazole Delayed-Release Capsules: 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg. (3)
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Omeprazole delayed-release capsules are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to substituted benzimidazoles or to any component of the formulation. Hypersensitivity reactions may include anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, acute interstitial nephritis, and urticaria [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. For information about contraindications of antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated in combination with omeprazole, refer to the CONTRAINDICATIONS section of their package inserts. Known hypersensitivity to any component of the formulation or substituted benzimidazoles (angioedema and anaphylaxis have occurred). (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Symptomatic response does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. (5.1) Atrophic Gastritis: has been noted with long-term therapy. (5.2) Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs. (5.3) Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) Deficiency: Daily long-term use (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption or a deficiency of cyanocobalamin. (5.4) PPI therapy may be associated with increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea. (5.5) Avoid concomitant use of omeprazole with clopidogrel. (5.6) Bone Fracture: Long-term and multiple daily dose PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist or spine. (5.7) Hypomagnesemia has been reported rarely with prolonged treatment with PPIs. (5.8) Avoid concomitant use of omeprazole with St. John’s Wort or rifampin due to the potential reduction in omeprazole concentrations. (5.9, 7.3) Interactions with Diagnostic Investigations for Neuroendocrine Tumors: Increases in intragastric pH may result in hypergastrinemia and enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and increased Choromogranin A levels which may interfere with diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. (5.10, 12.2) 5.1 Concomitant Gastric Malignancy Symptomatic response to therapy with omeprazole does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. 5.2 Atrophic Gastritis Atrophic gastritis has been noted occasionally in gastric corpus biopsies from patients treated long-term with omeprazole. 5.3 Acute Interstitial Nephritis Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs including omeprazole. Acute interstitial nephritis may occur at any point during PPI therapy and is generally attributed to an idiopathic hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue omeprazole if acute interstitial nephritis develops [see Contraindications (4)]. 5.4 Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) Deficiency Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) caused by hypo- or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acidsuppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed. 5.5 Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea Published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy like omeprazole may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents. For more information specific to antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated for use in combination with omeprazole, refer to WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections of those package inserts. 5.6 Interaction with Clopidogrel Avoid concomitant use of omeprazole with clopidogrel. Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is entirely due to an active metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by use with concomitant medications, such as omeprazole, that inhibit CYP2C19 activity. Concomitant use of clopidogrel with 80 mg omeprazole reduces the pharmacological activity of clopidogrel, even when administered 12 hours apart. When using omeprazole, consider alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Drug Interactions (7.3) and Pharmacokinetics (12.3) ]. 5.7 Bone Fracture Several published observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist, or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Adverse Reactions (6.3)]. 5.8 Hypomagnesemia Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI. For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions (6.3)]. 5.9 Concomitant Use of Omeprazole with St. John's Wort or Rifampin Drugs which induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as St. John’s Wort or rifampin) can substantially decrease omeprazole concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7.3)]. Avoid concomitant use of omeprazole with St. John’s Wort or rifampin. 5.10 Interactions with Diagnostic Investigations for Neuroendocrine Tumors Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to drug-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Healthcare providers should temporarily stop omeprazole treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g., for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary. 5.11 Concomitant Use of Omeprazole with Methotrexate Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see Drug Interactions (7.7)].
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Adults: Most common adverse reactions in adults (incidence ≥ 2%) are Headache, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and flatulence. (6) Pediatric Patients (2 to 16 years of age): Safety profile similar to that in adults, except that respiratory system events and fever were the most frequently reported reactions in pediatric studies. (8.4) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Aurobindo Pharma USA, Inc. at 1-866-850-2876 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience with Omeprazole Monotherapy Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The safety data described below reflects exposure to omeprazole delayed-release capsules in 3096 patients from worldwide clinical trials (465 patients from U.S. studies and 2,631 patients from international studies). Indications clinically studied in U.S. trials included duodenal ulcer, resistant ulcer, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The international clinical trials were double blind and open-label in design. The most common adverse reactions reported (i.e., with an incidence rate ≥ 2%) from omeprazole-treated patients enrolled in these studies included headache (6.9%), abdominal pain (5.2%), nausea (4%), diarrhea (3.7%), vomiting (3.2%), and flatulence (2.7%). Additional adverse reactions that were reported with an incidence ≥1% included acid regurgitation (1.9%), upper respiratory infection (1.9%), constipation (1.5%), dizziness (1.5%), rash (1.5%), asthenia (1.3%), back pain (1.1%), and cough (1.1%). The clinical trial safety profile in patients greater than 65 years of age was similar to that in patients 65 years of age or less. The clinical trial safety profile in pediatric patients who received omeprazole delayed-release capsules was similar to that in adult patients. Unique to the pediatric population, however, adverse reactions of the respiratory system were most frequently reported in the 2 to 16 year age group (18.5%). Similarly, accidental injuries were reported frequently in the 2 to 16 year age group (3.8%) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. 6.2 Clinical Trials Experience with Omeprazole in Combination Therapy for H. pylori Eradication In clinical trials using either dual therapy with omeprazole and clarithromycin, or triple therapy with omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, no adverse reactions unique to these drug combinations were observed. Adverse reactions observed were limited to those previously reported with omeprazole, clarithromycin, or amoxicillin alone. Dual Therapy (omeprazole/clarithromycin) Adverse reactions observed in controlled clinical trials using combination therapy with omeprazole and clarithromycin (n = 346) that differed from those previously described for omeprazole alone were taste perversion (15%), tongue discoloration (2%), rhinitis (2%), pharyngitis (1%) and flu-syndrome (1%). (For more information on clarithromycin, refer to the clarithromycin prescribing information, Adverse Reactions section.) Triple Therapy (omeprazole/clarithromycin/amoxicillin) The most frequent adverse reactions observed in clinical trials using combination therapy with omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (n = 274) were diarrhea (14%), taste perversion (10%), and headache (7%). None of these occurred at a higher frequency than that reported by patients taking antimicrobial agents alone. (For more information on clarithromycin or amoxicillin, refer to the respective prescribing information, Adverse Reactions sections.) 6.3 Post-marketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of omeprazole delayed-release capsules. Because these reactions are voluntarily reported from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their actual frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Body As a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, urticaria (see also Skin below), fever, pain, fatigue, malaise Cardiovascular: Chest pain or angina, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitations, elevated blood pressure, peripheral edema Endocrine: Gynecomastia Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis (some fatal), anorexia, irritable colon, fecal discoloration, esophageal candidiasis, mucosal atrophy of the tongue, stomatitis, abdominal swelling, dry mouth, microscopic colitis. During treatment with omeprazole, gastric fundic gland polyps have been noted rarely. These polyps are benign and appear to be reversible when treatment is discontinued. Gastroduodenal carcinoids have been reported in patients with ZE syndrome on long-term treatment with omeprazole. This finding is believed to be a manifestation of the underlying condition, which is known to be associated with such tumors. Hepatic: Liver disease including hepatic failure (some fatal), liver necrosis (some fatal), hepatic encephalopathy, hepatocellular disease, cholestatic disease, mixed hepatitis, jaundice, and elevations of liver function tests [ALT, AST, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin] Infections and Infestations: Clostridum difficile associated diarrhea Metabolism and Nutritional Disorders: Hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, with or without hypocalcemia and/or hypokalemia, hyponatremia, weight gain Musculoskeletal: Muscle weakness, myalgia, muscle cramps, joint pain, leg pain, bone fracture Nervous System/Psychiatric: Psychiatric and sleep disturbances including depression, agitation, aggression, hallucinations, confusion, insomnia, nervousness, apathy, somnolence, anxiety, and dream abnormalities, tremors, paresthesia, vertigo Respiratory: Epistaxis, pharyngeal pain Skin: Severe generalized skin reactions including toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and erythema multiforme, photosensitivity, urticaria, rash, skin inflammation, pruritus, petechiae, purpura, alopecia, dry skin, hyperhidrosis Special Senses: Tinnitus, taste perversion Ocular: Optic atrophy, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, optic neuritis, dry eye syndrome, ocular irritation, blurred vision, double vision Urogenital: Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, proteinuria, elevated serum creatinine, microscopic pyuria, urinary tract infection, glycosuria, urinary frequency, testicular pain Hematologic: Agranulocytosis (some fatal), hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, leucocytosis
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Atazanavir and Nelfinavir: Omeprazole reduces plasma levels of atazanavir and nelfinavir. Concomitant use is not recommended. (7.1) Saquinavir: Omeprazole increases plasma levels of saquinavir. Monitor for toxicity and consider dose reduction of saquinavir. (7.1) May interfere with drugs for which gastric pH affects bioavailability (e.g., ketoconazole, iron salts, erlotinib, ampicillin esters, digoxin and mycophenolate mofetil). Patients treated with omeprazole and digoxin may need to be monitored for increases in digoxin toxicity. (7.2) Clopidogrel: Omeprazole decreases exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel. (7.3, 12.3) Cilostazol: Omeprazole increases systemic exposure of cilostazol and one of its active metabolites. Consider dose reduction of cilostazol. (7.3) Drugs Metabolized by Cytochrome P450 (e.g., diazepam, warfarin, phenytoin, cyclosporine, disulfiram, benzodiazepines): Omeprazole can prolong their elimination. Monitor and determine need for dose adjustments. (7.3) Patients treated with proton pump inhibitors and warfarin may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time. (7.3) Combined inhibitor of CYP2C19 and 3A4 (e.g., voriconazole) may raise omeprazole levels. (7.3) Tacrolimus: Omeprazole may increase serum levels of tacrolimus. (7.4) Methotrexate: Omeprazole may increase serum levels of methotrexate. (7.7) 7.1 Interference with Antiretroviral Therapy Concomitant use of atazanavir and nelfinavir with proton pump inhibitors is not recommended. Co-administration of atazanavir with proton pump inhibitors is expected to substantially decrease atazanavir plasma concentrations and may result in a loss of therapeutic effect and the development of drug resistance. Co-administration of saquinavir with proton pump inhibitors is expected to increase saquinavir concentrations, which may increase toxicity and require dose reduction. Omeprazole has been reported to interact with some antiretroviral drugs. The clinical importance and the mechanisms behind these interactions are not always known. Increased gastric pH during omeprazole treatment may change the absorption of the antiretroviral drug. Other possible interaction mechanisms are via CYP2C19. Reduced Concentrations of Atazanavir and Nelfinavir For some antiretroviral drugs, such as atazanavir and nelfinavir, decreased serum levels have been reported when given together with omeprazole. Following multiple doses of nelfinavir (1250 mg, twice daily) and omeprazole (40 mg daily), AUC was decreased by 36% and 92%, Cmax by 37% and 89% and Cmin by 39% and 75% respectively for nelfinavir and M8. Following multiple doses of atazanavir (400 mg, daily) and omeprazole (40 mg, daily, 2 hr before atazanavir), AUC was decreased by 94%, Cmax by 96%, and Cmin by 95%. Concomitant administration with omeprazole and drugs such as atazanavir and nelfinavir is therefore not recommended. Increased Concentrations of Saquinavir For other antiretroviral drugs, such as saquinavir, elevated serum levels have been reported, with an increase in AUC by 82%, in Cmax by 75%, and in Cmin by 106%, following multiple dosing of saquinavir/ritonavir (1000/100 mg) twice daily for 15 days with omeprazole 40 mg daily co-administered days 11 to 15. Therefore, clinical and laboratory monitoring for saquinavir toxicity is recommended during concurrent use with omeprazole. Dose reduction of saquinavir should be considered from the safety perspective for individual patients. There are also some antiretroviral drugs of which unchanged serum levels have been reported when given with omeprazole. 7.2 Drugs for Which Gastric pH Can Affect Bioavailability Due to its effects on gastric acid secretion, omeprazole can reduce the absorption of drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of their bioavailability. Like with other drugs that decrease the intragastric acidity, the absorption of drugs such as ketoconazole, atazanavir, iron salts, erlotinib, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) can decrease, while the absorption of drugs such as digoxin can increase during treatment with omeprazole. Concomitant treatment with omeprazole (20 mg daily) and digoxin in healthy subjects increased the bioavailability of digoxin by 10% (30% in two subjects). Co-administration of digoxin with omeprazole is expected to increase the systemic exposure of digoxin. Therefore, patients may need to be monitored when digoxin is taken concomitantly with omeprazole. Co-administration of omeprazole in healthy subjects and in transplant patients receiving MMF has been reported to reduce the exposure to the active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), possibly due to a decrease in MMF solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical relevance of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving omeprazole and MMF. Use omeprazole with caution in transplant patients receiving MMF [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 7.3 Effects on Hepatic Metabolism/Cytochrome P-450 Pathways Omeprazole can prolong the elimination of diazepam, warfarin and phenytoin, drugs that are metabolized by oxidation in the liver. There have been reports of increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors, including omeprazole, and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with proton pump inhibitors and warfarin may need to be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time. Although in normal subjects no interaction with theophylline or propranolol was found, there have been clinical reports of interaction with other drugs metabolized via the cytochrome P450 system (e.g., cyclosporine, disulfiram, benzodiazepines). Patients should be monitored to determine if it is necessary to adjust the dosage of these drugs when taken concomitantly with omeprazole. Concomitant administration of omeprazole and voriconazole (a combined inhibitor of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4) resulted in more than doubling of the omeprazole exposure. Dose adjustment of omeprazole is not normally required. However, in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, who may require higher doses up to 240 mg/day, dose adjustment may be considered. When voriconazole (400 mg Q 12 h x 1 day, then 200 mg x 6 days) was given with omeprazole (40 mg once daily x 7 days) to healthy subjects, it significantly increased the steady-state Cmax and AUC0-24 of omeprazole, an average of 2 times (90% CI: 1.8, 2.6) and 4 times (90% CI: 3.3, 4.4) respectively as compared to when omeprazole was given without voriconazole. Omeprazole acts as an inhibitor of CYP2C19. Omeprazole, given in doses of 40 mg daily for one week to 20 healthy subjects in cross-over study, increased Cmax and AUC of cilostazol by 18% and 26% respectively. Cmax and AUC of one of its active metabolites, 3,4-dihydro-cilostazol, which has 4 to 7 times the activity of cilostazol, were increased by 29% and 69% respectively. Co-administration of cilostazol with omeprazole is expected to increase concentrations of cilostazol and its above mentioned active metabolite. Therefore a dose reduction of cilostazol from 100 mg twice daily to 50 mg twice daily should be considered. Drugs known to induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as rifampin) may lead to decreased omeprazole serum levels. In a cross-over study in 12 healthy male subjects, St. John’s wort (300 mg three times daily for 14 days), an inducer of CYP3A4, decreased the systemic exposure of omeprazole in CYP2C19 poor metabolisers (Cmax and AUC decreased by 37.5% and 37.9%, respectively) and extensive metabolisers (Cmax and AUC decreased by 49.6% and 43.9%, respectively). Avoid concomitant use of St. John’s Wort or rifampin with omeprazole. Clopidogrel Omeprazole is an inhibitor of CYP2C19 enzyme. Clopidogrel is metabolized to its active metabolite in part by CYP2C19. Concomitant use of omeprazole 80 mg results in reduced plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet inhibition. Avoid concomitant administration of omeprazole with clopidogrel. When using omeprazole, consider use of alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Pharmacokinetics (12.3)]. There are no adequate combination studies of a lower dose of omeprazole or a higher dose of clopidogrel in comparison with the approved dose of clopidogrel. 7.4 Tacrolimus Concomitant administration of omeprazole and tacrolimus may increase the serum levels of tacrolimus. 7.5 Interactions with Investigations of Neuroendocrine Tumors Drug-induced decrease in gastric acidity results in enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and increased Chromogranin A levels which may interfere with investigations for neuroendocrine tumors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) and Clinical Pharmacology (12)]. 7.6 Combination Therapy with Clarithromycin Concomitant administration of clarithromycin with other drugs can lead to serious adverse reactions due to drug interactions [see Warnings and Precautions in prescribing information for clarithromycin]. Because of these drug interactions, clarithromycin is contraindicated for co-administration with certain drugs [see Contraindications in prescribing information for clarithromycin]. 7.7 Methotrexate Case reports, published population pharmacokinetic studies, and retrospective analyses suggest that concomitant administration of PPIs and methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate. However, no formal drug interaction studies of methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)].
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS • Pregnancy: Based on animal data may cause fetal harm. (8.1) • Patients with Hepatic Impairment: Consider dose reduction, particularly for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis. (12.3) 8.1 Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category C Risk Summary There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with omeprazole in pregnant women. Available epidemiologic data fail to demonstrate an increased risk of major congenital malformations or other adverse pregnancy outcomes with first trimester omeprazole use. Teratogenicity was not observed in animal reproduction studies with administration of oral esomeprazole magnesium in rats and rabbits with doses about 68 times and 42 times, respectively, an oral human dose of 40 mg (based on a body surface area basis for a 60 kg person). However, changes in bone morphology were observed in offspring of rats dosed through most of pregnancy and lactation at doses equal to or greater than approximately 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg (see Animal Data). Because of the observed effect at high doses of esomeprazole magnesium on developing bone in rat studies, omeprazole should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Human Data Four published epidemiological studies compared the frequency of congenital abnormalities among infants born to women who used omeprazole during pregnancy with the frequency of abnormalities among infants of women exposed to H2-receptor antagonists or other controls. A population-based retrospective cohort epidemiological study from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, covering approximately 99% of pregnancies, from 1995 to 99, reported on 955 infants (824 exposed during the first trimester with 39 of these exposed beyond first trimester, and 131 exposed after the first trimester) whose mothers used omeprazole during pregnancy. The number of infants exposed in utero to omeprazole that had any malformation, low birth weight, low Apgar score, or hospitalization was similar to the number observed in this population. The number of infants born with ventricular septal defects and the number of stillborn infants was slightly higher in the omeprazole-exposed infants than the expected number in this population. A population-based retrospective cohort study covering all live births in Denmark from 1996 to 2009, reported on 1,800 live births whose mothers used omeprazole during the first trimester of pregnancy and 837, 317 live births whose mothers did not use any proton pump inhibitor. The overall rate of birth defects in infants born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole was 2.9% and 2.6% in infants born to mothers not exposed to any proton pump inhibitor during the first trimester. A retrospective cohort study reported on 689 pregnant women exposed to either H2-blockers or omeprazole in the first trimester (134 exposed to omeprazole) and 1,572 pregnant women unexposed to either during the first trimester. The overall malformation rate in offspring born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole, an H2-blocker, or were unexposed was 3.6%, 5.5%, and 4.1% respectively. A small prospective observational cohort study followed 113 women exposed to omeprazole during pregnancy (89% first trimester exposures). The reported rate of major congenital malformations was 4% in the omeprazole group, 2% in controls exposed to non-teratogens, and 2.8% in disease-paired controls. Rates of spontaneous and elective abortions, preterm deliveries, gestational age at delivery, and mean birth weight were similar among the groups. Several studies have reported no apparent adverse short-term effects on the infant when single dose oral or intravenous omeprazole was administered to over 200 pregnant women as premedication for cesarean section under general anesthesia. Animal Data Reproductive studies conducted with omeprazole in rats at oral doses up to 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and in rabbits at doses up to 69 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) did not disclose any evidence for a teratogenic potential of omeprazole. In rabbits, omeprazole in a dose range of 6.9 to 69.1 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) produced dose-related increases in embryo-lethality, fetal resorptions, and pregnancy disruptions. In rats, dose-related embryo/fetal toxicity and postnatal developmental toxicity were observed in offspring resulting from parents treated with omeprazole at 13.8 to 138 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human doses of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Reproduction studies have been performed with esomeprazole magnesium in rats at oral doses up to 280 mg/kg/day (about 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and in rabbits at oral doses up to 86 mg/kg/day (about 42 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to esomeprazole magnesium. A pre- and postnatal developmental toxicity study in rats with additional endpoints to evaluate bone development was performed with esomeprazole magnesium at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Neonatal/early postnatal (birth to weaning) survival was decreased at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Body weight and body weight gain were reduced and neurobehavioral or general developmental delays in the immediate post-weaning timeframe were evident at doses equal to or greater than 69 mg/kg/day (about 17 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). In addition, decreased femur length, width and thickness of cortical bone, decreased thickness of the tibial growth plate and minimal to mild bone marrow hypocellularity were noted at doses equal to or greater than 14 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Physeal dysplasia in the femur was observed in offspring of rats treated with oral doses of esomeprazole magnesium at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). Effects on maternal bone were observed in pregnant and lactating rats in the pre- and postnatal toxicity study when esomeprazole magnesium was administered at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). When rats were dosed from gestational day 7 through weaning on postnatal day 21, a statistically significant decrease in maternal femur weight of up to 14% (as compared to placebo treatment) was observed at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis). A pre- and postnatal development study in rats with esomeprazole strontium (using equimolar doses compared to esomeprazole magnesium study) produced similar results in dams and pups as described above. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Omeprazole is present in human milk. Omeprazole concentrations were measured in breast milk of a woman following oral administration of 20 mg. The peak concentration of omeprazole in breast milk was less than 7% of the peak serum concentration. This concentration would correspond to 0.004 mg of omeprazole in 200 mL of milk. Caution should be exercised when omeprazole are administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use Use of omeprazole in pediatric and adolescent patients 2 to 16 years of age for the treatment of GERD and maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis is supported by a) extrapolation of results from adequate and well-controlled studies that supported the approval of omeprazole for adults, and b) safety and pharmacokinetic studies performed in pediatric and adolescent patients [see Clinical Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, Pediatric for pharmacokinetic information (12.3) and Dosage and Administration (2), Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Studies (14.6)]. The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole for the treatment of GERD in patients <1 year of age have not been established. The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole for other pediatric uses have not been established. Juvenile Animal Data In a juvenile rat toxicity study, esomeprazole was administered with both magnesium and strontium salts at oral doses about 34 to 68 times a daily human dose of 40 mg based on body surface area. Increases in death were seen at the high dose, and at all doses of esomeprazole, there were decreases in body weight, body weight gain, femur weight and femur length, and decreases in overall growth [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)]. 8.5 Geriatric Use Omeprazole was administered to over 2000 elderly individuals (≥ 65 years of age) in clinical trials in the U.S. and Europe. There were no differences in safety and effectiveness between the elderly and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown the elimination rate was somewhat decreased in the elderly and bioavailability was increased. The plasma clearance of omeprazole was 250 mL/min (about half that of young volunteers) and its plasma half-life averaged one hour, about twice that of young healthy volunteers. However, no dosage adjustment is necessary in the elderly [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment Consider dose reduction, particularly for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.7 Renal Impairment No dosage reduction is necessary [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.8 Asian Population Consider dose reduction, particularly for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].