Venous Thromboembolism: Risk of DVT and pulmonary embolism (5.1) Known, suspected, or history of breast cancer (5.2) Severe Hepatic Impairment (5.3, 8.7, 12.3) 5.1 Cardiovascular Disorders Risk factors for cardiovascular disorders, arterial vascular disease (for example, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity) and/or venous thromboembolism (VTE) (for example, personal history or family history of VTE, obesity, and systemic lupus erythematosus), should be managed appropriately. Stroke In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, a statistically significant increased risk of stroke was reported in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to women in the same age group receiving placebo (45 versus 33 per ten thousand women-years). The increase in risk was demonstrated in year 1 and persisted. In the clinical trials for OSPHENA (duration of treatment up to 15 months), the incidence rates of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic stroke were 0.72 and 1.45 per thousand women, respectively in OSPHENA 60 mg treatment group and 1.04 and 0 per thousand women in placebo. Should thromboembolic or hemorrhagic stroke occur or be suspected, OSPHENA should be discontinued immediately. Coronary Heart Disease In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, no overall effect on coronary heart disease (CHD) events (defined as nonfatal MI, silent MI, or CHD death) was reported in women receiving estrogen-alone compared to placebo. In the OSPHENA clinical trials, a single MI occurred in a woman receiving 60 mg of ospemifene. Venous Thromboembolism In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, the risk of VTE (DVT and PE), was increased for women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to placebo (30 versus 22 per ten thousand women-years), although only the increased risk of DVT reached statistical significance (23 versus 15 per ten thousand women-years). The increase in VTE risk was demonstrated during the first 2 years. In the OSPHENA clinical trials, the incidence of DVT was 1.45 per thousand women in OSPHENA 60 mg treatment group and 1.04 per thousand women in placebo. Should a VTE occur or be suspected, OSPHENA should be discontinued immediately. If feasible, OSPHENA should be discontinued at least 4 to 6 weeks before surgery of the type associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism, or during periods of prolonged immobilization. 5.2 Malignant Neoplasms Endometrial Cancer OSPHENA is an estrogen agonist/antagonist with tissue selective effects. In the endometrium, OSPHENA has agonistic effects. In the OSPHENA clinical trials (60 mg treatment group), no cases of endometrial cancer were seen with exposure up to 52 weeks. There was a single case of simple hyperplasia without atypia. Endometrial thickening equal to 5 mm or greater was seen in the OSPHENA treatment groups at a rate of 60.1 per thousand women vs. 21.2 per thousand women for placebo. The incidence of any type of proliferative (weakly plus active plus disordered) endometrium was 86.1 per thousand women in OSPHENA vs. 13.3 per thousand women for placebo. Uterine polyps occurred at an incidence of 5.9 per thousand women vs. 1.8 per thousand women for placebo. An increased risk of endometrial cancer has been reported with the use of unopposed estrogen therapy in a woman with a uterus. The reported endometrial cancer risk among unopposed estrogen users is about 2 to 12 times greater than in non-users, and appears dependent on duration of treatment and on estrogen dose. Most studies show no significant increased risk associated with the use of estrogens for less than 1 year. The greatest risk appears to be associated with prolonged use, with increased risks of 15- to 24-fold for 5 to 10 years or more. This risk has been shown to persist for at least 8 to 15 years after estrogen therapy is discontinued. Adding a progestin to postmenopausal estrogen therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. There are, however, possible risks that may be associated with the use of progestins with estrogens compared to estrogen-alone regimens. These include an increased risk of breast cancer. The use of progestins with OSPHENA therapy was not evaluated in the clinical trials. Clinical surveillance of all women using OSPHENA is important. Adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding. Breast Cancer OSPHENA 60 mg has not been adequately studied in women with breast cancer; therefore, it should not be used in women with known or suspected breast cancer or with a history of breast cancer. 5.3 Severe Hepatic Impairment OSPHENA should not be used in women with severe hepatic impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].