WARNING: ADDICTION, ABUSE and MISUSE; LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; ACCIDENTAL INGESTION; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; and CYTOCHROME P450 3A4 INTERACTION Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse OXYCONTIN® exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient’s risk prior to prescribing OXYCONTIN and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors or conditions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of OXYCONTIN. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of OXYCONTIN or following a dose increase. Instruct patients to swallow OXYCONTIN tablets whole; crushing, chewing, or dissolving OXYCONTIN tablets can cause rapid release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of oxycodone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Accidental Ingestion Accidental ingestion of even one dose of OXYCONTIN, especially by children, can result in a fatal overdose of oxycodone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome Prolonged use of OXYCONTIN during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Cytochrome P450 3A4 Interaction The concomitant use of OXYCONTIN with all cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors may result in an increase in oxycodone plasma concentrations, which could increase or prolong adverse drug effects and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression. In addition, discontinuation of a concomitantly used cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer may result in an increase in oxycodone plasma concentration. Monitor patients receiving OXYCONTIN and any CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. WARNING: ADDICTION, ABUSE AND MISUSE; LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; ACCIDENTAL INGESTION; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; and CYTOCHROME P450 3A4 INTERACTION See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. OXYCONTIN exposes users to risks of addictions, abuse and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient’s risk before prescribing and monitor regularly for development of these behaviors and conditions. (5.1) Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur. Monitor closely, especially upon initiation or following a dose increase. Instruct patients to swallow OXYCONTIN tablets whole to avoid exposure to a potentially fatal dose of oxycodone. (5.2) Accidental ingestion of OXYCONTIN, especially in children, can result in a fatal overdose of oxycodone. (5.2) Prolonged use of OXYCONTIN during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available. (5.3) Initiation of CYP3A4 inhibitors (or discontinuation of CYP3A4 inducers) can result in a fatal overdose of oxycodone from OXYCONTIN. (5.14, 12.3)
|Indications and Usage (1) ||08/2015 |
|Dosage and Administration (2) ||08/2015 |
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE OXYCONTIN is indicated for the management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate in: Adults; and Opioid-tolerant pediatric patients 11 years of age and older who are already receiving and tolerate a minimum daily opioid dose of at least 20 mg oxycodone orally or its equivalent. Limitations of Use Because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids, even at recommended doses, and because of the greater risks of overdose and death with extended-release opioid formulations [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)], reserve OXYCONTIN for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options (e.g., non-opioid analgesics or immediate-release opioids) are ineffective, not tolerated, or would be otherwise inadequate to provide sufficient management of pain. OXYCONTIN is not indicated as an as-needed (prn) analgesic. OXYCONTIN is an opioid agonist indicated for pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate in: Adults; and Opioid-tolerant pediatric patients 11 years of age and older who are already receiving and tolerate a minimum daily opioid dose of at least 20 mg oxycodone orally or its equivalent. Limitations of Use Because of the risks of addiction, abuse and misuse with opioids, even at recommended doses, and because of the greater risks of overdose and death with extended-release formulations, reserve OXYCONTIN for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options (e.g. non-opioid analgesics or immediate-release opioids) are ineffective, not tolerated, or would be otherwise inadequate to provide sufficient management of pain. (1) OXYCONTIN is not indicated as an as-needed (prn) analgesic. (1)
Table 1: Conversion Factors When Switching Pediatric Patients 11 Years and Older to OXYCONTIN
|*For patients receiving high-dose parenteral opioids, a more conservative conversion is warranted. For example, for high-dose parenteral morphine, use 1.5 instead of 3 as a multiplication factor. |
| Prior Opioid || Conversion Factor |
| || Oral || Parenteral* |
|Oxycodone ||1 ||-- |
|Hydrocodone ||0.9 ||-- |
|Hydromorphone ||4 ||20 |
|Morphine ||0.5 ||3 |
|Tramadol ||0.17 ||0.2 |
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS 10 mg film-coated extended-release tablets (round, white-colored, bi-convex tablets debossed with OP on one side and 10 on the other) 15 mg film-coated extended-release tablets (round, gray-colored, bi-convex tablets debossed with OP on one side and 15 on the other) 20 mg film-coated extended-release tablets (round, pink-colored, bi-convex tablets debossed with OP on one side and 20 on the other) 30 mg film-coated extended-release tablets (round, brown-colored, bi-convex tablets debossed with OP on one side and 30 on the other) 40 mg film-coated extended-release tablets (round, yellow-colored, bi-convex tablets debossed with OP on one side and 40 on the other) 60 mg film-coated extended-release tablets (round, red-colored, bi-convex tablets debossed with OP on one side and 60 on the other) 80 mg film-coated extended-release tablets (round, green-colored, bi-convex tablets debossed with OP on one side and 80 on the other) Extended-release tablets: 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, 60 mg, and 80 mg (3)
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS OXYCONTIN is contraindicated in patients with: Significant respiratory depression Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment Known or suspected paralytic ileus and gastrointestinal obstruction Hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to oxycodone [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)] Significant respiratory depression. (4) Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in absence of resuscitative equipment. (4) Known or suspected paralytic ileus and gastrointestinal obstruction. (4) Hypersensitivity to oxycodone. (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Risk of life-threatening respiratory depression in elderly, cachectic, and debilitated patients, and in patients with chronic pulmonary disease: Monitor closely. (5.5, 5.6) Severe hypotension: Monitor during dosage initiation and titration. Avoid use of OXYCONTIN in patients with circulatory shock. (5.7) Risk of use in patients with increased intracranial pressure, brain tumors, head injury, or impaired consciousness: Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. Avoid use of OXYCONTIN in patients with impaired consciousness or coma. (5.8) Risk of obstruction in patients who have difficulty swallowing or have underlying GI disorders that may predispose them to obstruction: Consider use of an alternative analgesic. (5.9) 5.1 Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse OXYCONTIN contains oxycodone, a Schedule II controlled substance. As an opioid, OXYCONTIN exposes users to the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)]. As modified-release products such as OXYCONTIN deliver the opioid over an extended period of time, there is a greater risk for overdose and death due to the larger amount of oxycodone present [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)]. Although the risk of addiction in any individual is unknown, it can occur in patients appropriately prescribed OXYCONTIN. Addiction can occur at recommended doses and if the drug is misused or abused. Assess each patient’s risk for opioid addiction, abuse or misuse prior to prescribing OXYCONTIN, and monitor all patients receiving OXYCONTIN for the development of these behaviors or conditions. Risks are increased in patients with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol abuse or addiction) or mental illness (e.g., major depression). The potential for these risks should not, however, prevent the proper management of pain in any given patient. Patients at increased risk may be prescribed modified-release opioid formulations such as OXYCONTIN, but use in such patients necessitates intensive counseling about the risks and proper use of OXYCONTIN along with intensive monitoring for signs of addiction, abuse, and misuse. Abuse, or misuse of OXYCONTIN by crushing, chewing, snorting, or injecting the dissolved product will result in the uncontrolled delivery of oxycodone and can result in overdose and death [see Overdosage (10)]. Opioid agonists are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders and are subject to criminal diversion. Consider these risks when prescribing or dispensing OXYCONTIN. Strategies to reduce these risks include prescribing the drug in the smallest appropriate quantity and advising the patient on the proper disposal of unused drug [see Patient Counseling Information (17)]. Contact local state professional licensing board or state controlled substances authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product. 5.2 Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression has been reported with the use of modified-release opioids, even when used as recommended. Respiratory depression, if not immediately recognized and treated, may lead to respiratory arrest and death. Management of respiratory depression may include close observation, supportive measures, and use of opioid antagonists, depending on the patient’s clinical status [see Overdosage (10)]. Carbon dioxide (CO2) retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids. While serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression can occur at any time during the use of OXYCONTIN, the risk is greatest during the initiation of therapy or following a dose increase. Closely monitor patients for respiratory depression when initiating therapy with OXYCONTIN and following dose increases. To reduce the risk of respiratory depression, proper dosing and titration of OXYCONTIN are essential [see Dosage and Administration (2)]. Overestimating the OXYCONTIN dose when converting patients from another opioid product can result in a fatal overdose with the first dose. Accidental ingestion of even one dose of OXYCONTIN, especially by children, can result in respiratory depression and death due to an overdose of oxycodone. 5.3 Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome Prolonged use of OXYCONTIN during pregnancy can result in withdrawal signs in the neonate. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, unlike opioid withdrawal syndrome in adults, may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. 5.4 Interactions with Central Nervous System Depressants Hypotension and profound sedation, coma, or respiratory depression may result if OXYCONTIN is used concomitantly with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants (e.g., sedatives, anxiolytics, hypnotics, neuroleptics, other opioids). When considering the use of OXYCONTIN in a patient taking a CNS depressant, assess the duration of use of the CNS depressant and the patient’s response, including the degree of tolerance that has developed to CNS depression. Additionally, evaluate the patient’s use of alcohol or illicit drugs that can cause CNS depression. If the decision to begin OXYCONTIN therapy is made, start with 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dose of OXYCONTIN, monitor patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression and consider using a lower dose of the concomitant CNS depressant [see Drug Interactions (7.1) and Dosage and Administration (2.6)]. 5.5 Use in Elderly, Cachectic, and Debilitated Patients Life-threatening respiratory depression is more likely to occur in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients as they may have altered pharmacokinetics or altered clearance compared to younger, healthier patients. Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating and titrating OXYCONTIN and when OXYCONTIN is given concomitantly with other drugs that depress respiration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. 5.6 Use in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease Monitor patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, and patients having a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression for respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy and titrating with OXYCONTIN, as in these patients, even usual therapeutic doses of OXYCONTIN may decrease respiratory drive to the point of apnea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Consider the use of alternative non-opioid analgesics in these patients if possible. 5.7 Hypotensive Effects OXYCONTIN may cause severe hypotension, including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is an increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g., phenothiazines or general anesthetics) [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Monitor these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating or titrating the dose of OXYCONTIN. In patients with circulatory shock, OXYCONTIN may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure. Avoid the use of OXYCONTIN in patients with circulatory shock. 5.8 Use in Patients with Head Injury or Increased Intracranial Pressure Monitor patients taking OXYCONTIN who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO2 retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors) for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with OXYCONTIN. OXYCONTIN may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of OXYCONTIN in patients with impaired consciousness or coma. 5.9 Difficulty in Swallowing and Risk for Obstruction in Patients at Risk for a Small Gastrointestinal Lumen There have been post-marketing reports of difficulty in swallowing OXYCONTIN tablets. These reports included choking, gagging, regurgitation and tablets stuck in the throat. Instruct patients not to pre-soak, lick or otherwise wet OXYCONTIN tablets prior to placing in the mouth, and to take one tablet at a time with enough water to ensure complete swallowing immediately after placing in the mouth. There have been rare post-marketing reports of cases of intestinal obstruction, and exacerbation of diverticulitis, some of which have required medical intervention to remove the tablet. Patients with underlying GI disorders such as esophageal cancer or colon cancer with a small gastrointestinal lumen are at greater risk of developing these complications. Consider use of an alternative analgesic in patients who have difficulty swallowing and patients at risk for underlying GI disorders resulting in a small gastrointestinal lumen. 5.10 Use in Patients with Gastrointestinal Conditions OXYCONTIN is contraindicated in patients with GI obstruction, including paralytic ileus. The oxycodone in OXYCONTIN may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis, for worsening symptoms. Opioids may cause increases in the serum amylase. 5.11 Use in Patients with Convulsive or Seizure Disorders The oxycodone in OXYCONTIN may aggravate convulsions in patients with convulsive disorders, and may induce or aggravate seizures in some clinical settings. Monitor patients with a history of seizure disorders for worsened seizure control during OXYCONTIN therapy. 5.12 Avoidance of Withdrawal Avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist (i.e., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) or partial agonist (buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who have received or are receiving a course of therapy with a full opioid agonist analgesic, including OXYCONTIN. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or may precipitate withdrawal symptoms. When discontinuing OXYCONTIN, gradually taper the dose [see Dosage and Administration (2.9)]. Do not abruptly discontinue OXYCONTIN. 5.13 Driving and Operating Machinery OXYCONTIN may impair the mental or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of OXYCONTIN and know how they will react to the medication. 5.14 Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors and Inducers Since the CYP3A4 isoenzyme plays a major role in the metabolism of OXYCONTIN, drugs that alter CYP3A4 activity may cause changes in clearance of oxycodone which could lead to changes in oxycodone plasma concentrations. Inhibition of CYP3A4 activity by its inhibitors, such as macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole), and protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir), may increase plasma concentrations of oxycodone and prolong opioid effects. CYP450 inducers, such as rifampin, carbamazepine, and phenytoin, may induce the metabolism of oxycodone and, therefore, may cause increased clearance of the drug which could lead to a decrease in oxycodone plasma concentrations, lack of efficacy or, possibly, development of an abstinence syndrome in a patient who had developed physical dependence to oxycodone. If co-administration is necessary, caution is advised when initiating OXYCONTIN treatment in patients currently taking, or discontinuing, CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers. Evaluate these patients at frequent intervals and consider dose adjustments until stable drug effects are achieved [see Drug Interactions (7.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 5.15 Laboratory Monitoring Not every urine drug test for “opioids” or “opiates” detects oxycodone reliably, especially those designed for in-office use. Further, many laboratories will report urine drug concentrations below a specified “cut-off” value as “negative”. Therefore, if urine testing for oxycodone is considered in the clinical management of an individual patient, ensure that the sensitivity and specificity of the assay is appropriate, and consider the limitations of the testing used when interpreting results.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling: Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Interactions with Other CNS Depressants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Hypotensive Effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] Gastrointestinal Effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9, 5.10)] Seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)] Most common adverse reactions (>5%) were constipation, nausea, somnolence, dizziness, vomiting, pruritus, headache, dry mouth, asthenia, and sweating. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Purdue Pharma L.P. at 1-888-726-7535 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trial Experience Adult Clinical Trial Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The safety of OXYCONTIN was evaluated in double-blind clinical trials involving 713 patients with moderate to severe pain of various etiologies. In open-label studies of cancer pain, 187 patients received OXYCONTIN in total daily doses ranging from 20 mg to 640 mg per day. The average total daily dose was approximately 105 mg per day. OXYCONTIN may increase the risk of serious adverse reactions such as those observed with other opioid analgesics, including respiratory depression, apnea, respiratory arrest, circulatory depression, hypotension, or shock [see Overdosage (10)]. The most common adverse reactions (>5%) reported by patients in clinical trials comparing OXYCONTIN with placebo are shown in Table 2 below: TABLE 2: Common Adverse Reactions (>5%) Adverse Reaction OXYCONTIN (n=227) Placebo (n=45) (%) (%) Constipation (23) (7) Nausea (23) (11) Somnolence (23) (4) Dizziness (13) (9) Pruritus (13) (2) Vomiting (12) (7) Headache (7) (7) Dry Mouth (6) (2) Asthenia (6) - Sweating (5) (2) In clinical trials, the following adverse reactions were reported in patients treated with OXYCONTIN with an incidence between 1% and 5%: Gastrointestinal disorders: abdominal pain, diarrhea, dyspepsia, gastritis General disorders and administration site conditions: chills, fever Metabolism and nutrition disorders: anorexia Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: twitching Psychiatric disorders: abnormal dreams, anxiety, confusion, dysphoria, euphoria, insomnia, nervousness, thought abnormalities Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: dyspnea, hiccups Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: rash Vascular disorders: postural hypotension The following adverse reactions occurred in less than 1% of patients involved in clinical trials: Blood and lymphatic system disorders: lymphadenopathy Ear and labyrinth disorders: tinnitus Eye disorders: abnormal vision Gastrointestinal disorders: dysphagia, eructation, flatulence, gastrointestinal disorder, increased appetite, stomatitis General disorders and administration site conditions: withdrawal syndrome (with and without seizures), edema, peripheral edema, thirst, malaise, chest pain, facial edema Injury, poisoning and procedural complications: accidental injury Investigations: ST depression Metabolism and nutrition disorders: dehydration Nervous system disorders: syncope, migraine, abnormal gait, amnesia, hyperkinesia, hypoesthesia, hypotonia, paresthesia, speech disorder, stupor, tremor, vertigo, taste perversion Psychiatric disorders: depression, agitation, depersonalization, emotional lability, hallucination Renal and urinary disorders: dysuria, hematuria, polyuria, urinary retention Reproductive system and breast disorders: impotence Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: cough increased, voice alteration Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: dry skin, exfoliative dermatitis Clinical Trial Experience in Pediatric Patients 11 Years and Older The safety of OXYCONTIN has been evaluated in one clinical trial with 140 patients 11 to 16 years of age. The median duration of treatment was approximately three weeks. The most frequently reported adverse events were vomiting, nausea, headache, pyrexia, and constipation Table 3 includes a summary of the incidence of treatment emergent adverse events reported in ≥5% of patients. Table 3: Incidence of Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 5.0% Patients 11 to 16 Years System Organ Class Preferred Term 11 to 16 Years (N=140) n (%) Any Adverse Event >= 5% 71 (51) GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS 56 (40) Vomiting 30 (21) Nausea 21 (15) Constipation 13 (9) Diarrhea 8 (6) GENERAL DISORDERS AND ADMINISTRATION SITE CONDITIONS 32 (23) Pyrexia 15 (11) METABOLISM AND NUTRITION DISORDERS 9 (6) Decreased appetite 7 (5) NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS 37 (26) Headache 20 (14) Dizziness 12 (9) SKIN AND SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE DISORDERS 23 (16) Pruritus 8 (6) The following adverse reactions occurred in a clinical trial of OXYCONTIN in patients 11 to 16 years of age with an incidence between ≥1.0% and < 5.0%. Events are listed within each System/Organ Class. Blood and lymphatic system disorders: febrile neutropenia, neutropenia Cardiac disorders: tachycardia Gastrointestinal disorders: abdominal pain, gastroesophageal reflux disease General disorders and administration site conditions: fatigue, pain, chills, asthenia Injury, poisoning, and procedural complications: procedural pain, seroma Investigations: oxygen saturation decreased, alanine aminotransferase increased, hemoglobin decreased, platelet count decreased, neutrophil count decreased, red blood cell count decreased, weight decreased Metabolic and nutrition disorders: hypochloremia, hyponatraemia Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: pain in extremity, musculoskeletal pain Nervous system disorders: somnolence, hypoesthesia, lethargy, paresthesia Psychiatric disorders: insomnia, anxiety, depression, agitation Renal and urinary disorders: dysuria, urinary retention Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders: oropharyngeal pain Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: hyperhidrosis, rash 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of controlled-release oxycodone: abuse, addiction, aggression, amenorrhea, cholestasis, completed suicide, death, dental caries, increased hepatic enzymes, hyperalgesia, hypogonadism, hyponatremia, ileus, intentional overdose, mood altered, muscular hypertonia, overdose, palpitations (in the context of withdrawal), seizures, suicidal attempt, suicidal ideation, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and urticaria. Anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in OXYCONTIN. Advise patients how to recognize such a reaction and when to seek medical attention. In addition to the events listed above, the following have also been reported, potentially due to the swelling and hydrogelling property of the tablet: choking, gagging, regurgitation, tablets stuck in the throat and difficulty swallowing the tablet.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS CNS depressants: Concomitant use may cause hypotension, profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. If decision to begin OXYCONTIN is made, start with 1/3 to 1/2 the recommended starting dosage and monitor closely. (2.6, 5.4, 7.1) Mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist opioid analgesics: Avoid use with OXYCONTIN because they may reduce analgesic effect of OXYCONTIN or precipitate withdrawal symptoms. (7.3) 7.1 CNS Depressants The concomitant use of OXYCONTIN and other CNS depressants including sedatives, hypnotics, tranquilizers, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, other opioids, and alcohol can increase the risk of respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, or death. Monitor patients receiving CNS depressants and OXYCONTIN for signs of respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension. When combined therapy with any of the above medications is considered, the dose of one or both agents should be reduced [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. 7.2 Drugs Affecting Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes Inhibitors of CYP3A4 and 2D6 Because the CYP3A4 isoenzyme plays a major role in the metabolism of oxycodone, drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 activity may cause decreased clearance of oxycodone which could lead to an increase in oxycodone plasma concentrations and result in increased or prolonged opioid effects. These effects could be more pronounced with concomitant use of CYP2D6 and 3A4 inhibitors. If co-administration with OXYCONTIN is necessary, monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals and consider dose adjustments until stable drug effects are achieved [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Inducers of CYP3A4 CYP450 3A4 inducers may induce the metabolism of oxycodone and, therefore, may cause increased clearance of the drug which could lead to a decrease in oxycodone plasma concentrations, lack of efficacy or, possibly, development of an abstinence syndrome in a patient who had developed physical dependence to oxycodone. If co-administration with OXYCONTIN is necessary, monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal and consider dose adjustments until stable drug effects are achieved. After stopping the treatment of a CYP3A4 inducer, as the effects of the inducer decline, the oxycodone plasma concentration will increase which could increase or prolong both the therapeutic and adverse effects, and may cause serious respiratory depression [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 7.3 Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics Mixed agonist/antagonist (i.e., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) and partial agonist (buprenorphine) analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect of oxycodone or precipitate withdrawal symptoms. Avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics in patients receiving OXYCONTIN. 7.4 Muscle Relaxants Oxycodone may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of true skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression. Monitor patients receiving muscle relaxants and OXYCONTIN for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected. 7.5 Diuretics Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone. Opioids may also lead to acute retention of urine by causing spasm of the sphincter of the bladder, particularly in men with enlarged prostates. 7.6 Anticholinergics Anticholinergics or other medications with anticholinergic activity when used concurrently with opioid analgesics may result in increased risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when OXYCONTIN is used concurrently with anticholinergic drugs.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Nursing mothers: Oxycodone has been detected in human milk. Closely monitor infants of nursing women receiving OXYCONTIN. (8.3) 8.1 Pregnancy Clinical Considerations Fetal/neonatal adverse reactions Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, such as poor feeding, diarrhea, irritability, tremor, rigidity, and seizures, and manage accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. OXYCONTIN should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the risk to the fetus. The effect of oxycodone in human reproduction has not been adequately studied. Studies with oral doses of oxycodone hydrochloride in rats up to 8 mg/kg/day and rabbits up to 125 mg/kg/day, equivalent to 0.5 and 15 times an adult human dose of 160 mg/day, respectively on a mg/m2 basis, did not reveal evidence of harm to the fetus due to oxycodone. In a pre- and postnatal toxicity study, female rats received oxycodone during gestation and lactation. There were no long-term developmental or reproductive effects in the pups [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. Non-Teratogenic Effects Oxycodone hydrochloride was administered orally to female rats during gestation and lactation in a pre- and postnatal toxicity study. There were no drug-related effects on reproductive performance in these females or any long-term developmental or reproductive effects in pups born to these rats. Decreased body weight was found during lactation and the early post-weaning phase in pups nursed by mothers given the highest dose used (6 mg/kg/day, equivalent to approximately 0.4-times an adult human dose of 160 mg/day, on a mg/m2 basis). However, body weight of these pups recovered. 8.2 Labor and Delivery Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression in neonates. OXYCONTIN is not recommended for use in women immediately prior to labor, when use of shorter-acting analgesics or other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration and frequency of uterine contractions. However this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilatation, which tends to shorten labor. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Oxycodone has been detected in breast milk. Instruct patients not to undertake nursing while receiving OXYCONTIN. Do not initiate OXYCONTIN therapy while nursing because of the possibility of sedation or respiratory depression in the infant. Withdrawal signs can occur in breast-fed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and efficacy of OXYCONTIN have been established in pediatric patients ages 11 to 16 years. Use of OXYCONTIN is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled trials with OXYCONTIN in adults as well as an open-label study in pediatric patients ages 6 to 16 years. However, there were insufficient numbers of patients less than 11 years of age enrolled in this study to establish the safety of the product in this age group. The safety of OXYCONTIN in pediatric patients was evaluated in 155 patients previously receiving and tolerating opioids for at least 5 consecutive days with a minimum of 20 mg per day of oxycodone or its equivalent on the two days immediately preceding dosing with OXYCONTIN. Patients were started on a total daily dose ranging between 20 mg and 100 mg depending on prior opioid dose. The most frequent adverse events observed in pediatric patients were vomiting, nausea, headache, pyrexia, and constipation [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Trials (14)]. 8.5 Geriatric Use In controlled pharmacokinetic studies in elderly subjects (greater than 65 years) the clearance of oxycodone was slightly reduced. Compared to young adults, the plasma concentrations of oxycodone were increased approximately 15% [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Of the total number of subjects (445) in clinical studies of oxycodone hydrochloride controlled-release tablets, 148 (33.3%) were age 65 and older (including those age 75 and older) while 40 (9.0%) were age 75 and older. In clinical trials with appropriate initiation of therapy and dose titration, no untoward or unexpected adverse reactions were seen in the elderly patients who received oxycodone hydrochloride controlled-release tablets. Thus, the usual doses and dosing intervals may be appropriate for elderly patients. However, reduce the starting dose to 1/3 to 1/2 the usual dosage in debilitated, non-opioid-tolerant patients. Respiratory depression is the chief risk in elderly or debilitated patients, usually the result of large initial doses in patients who are not tolerant to opioids, or when opioids are given in conjunction with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dose of OXYCONTIN cautiously in these patients. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment A study of OXYCONTIN in patients with hepatic impairment demonstrated greater plasma concentrations than those seen at equivalent doses in persons with normal hepatic function. Therefore, in the setting of hepatic impairment, start dosing patients at 1/3 to 1/2 the usual starting dose followed by careful dose titration [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.7 Renal Impairment In patients with renal impairment, as evidenced by decreased creatinine clearance (<60 mL/min), the concentrations of oxycodone in the plasma are approximately 50% higher than in subjects with normal renal function. Follow a conservative approach to dose initiation and adjust according to the clinical situation [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.8 Gender Differences In pharmacokinetic studies with OXYCONTIN, opioid-naïve females demonstrate up to 25% higher average plasma concentrations and greater frequency of typical opioid adverse events than males, even after adjustment for body weight. The clinical relevance of a difference of this magnitude is low for a drug intended for chronic usage at individualized dosages, and there was no male/female difference detected for efficacy or adverse events in clinical trials.