WARNING: DIMINISHED EFFECTIVENESS IN POOR METABOLIZERS WARNING: DIMINISHED EFFECTIVENESS IN POOR METABOLIZERS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Effectiveness of Plavix depends on activation to an active metabolite by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, principally CYP2C19. (5.1) Poor metabolizers treated with Plavix at recommended doses exhibit higher cardiovascular event rates following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) than patients with normal CYP2C19 function. (12.5) Tests are available to identify a patient's CYP2C19 genotype and can be used as an aid in determining therapeutic strategy. (12.5) Consider alternative treatment or treatment strategies in patients identified as CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. (2.3, 5.1) The effectiveness of Plavix is dependent on its activation to an active metabolite by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, principally CYP2C19 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Plavix at recommended doses forms less of that metabolite and has a smaller effect on platelet function in patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. Poor metabolizers with acute coronary syndrome or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention treated with Plavix at recommended doses exhibit higher cardiovascular event rates than do patients with normal CYP2C19 function. Tests are available to identify a patient's CYP2C19 genotype; these tests can be used as an aid in determining therapeutic strategy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)]. Consider alternative treatment or treatment strategies in patients identified as CYP2C19 poor metabolizers [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Plavix is a P2Y12 platelet inhibitor indicated for: Acute coronary syndrome - For patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS [unstable angina (UA)/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)], Plavix has been shown to decrease the rate of a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke as well as the rate of a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, or refractory ischemia. (1.1) - For patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), Plavix has been shown to reduce the rate of death from any cause and the rate of a combined endpoint of death, re-infarction, or stroke. The benefit for patients who undergo primary PCI is unknown. (1.1) Recent MI, recent stroke, or established peripheral arterial disease. Plavix has been shown to reduce the combined endpoint of new ischemic stroke, new MI, and other vascular death. (1.2) 1.1 Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) For patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS [unstable angina (UA)/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)], including patients who are to be managed medically and those who are to be managed with coronary revascularization, Plavix has been shown to decrease the rate of a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke as well as the rate of a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, or refractory ischemia. For patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), Plavix has been shown to reduce the rate of death from any cause and the rate of a combined endpoint of death, re-infarction, or stroke. The benefit for patients who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention is unknown. The optimal duration of Plavix therapy in ACS is unknown. 1.2 Recent MI, Recent Stroke, or Established Peripheral Arterial Disease For patients with a history of recent myocardial infarction (MI), recent stroke, or established peripheral arterial disease, Plavix has been shown to reduce the rate of a combined endpoint of new ischemic stroke (fatal or not), new MI (fatal or not), and other vascular death.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS 75 mg tablets: Pink, round, biconvex, film-coated tablets debossed with "75" on one side and "1171" on the other 300 mg tablets: Pink, oblong, film-coated tablets debossed with "300" on one side and "1332" on the other Tablets: 75 mg, 300 mg (3)
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Active pathological bleeding, such as peptic ulcer or intracranial hemorrhage (4.1) Hypersensitivity to clopidogrel or any component of the product (4.2) 4.1 Active Bleeding Plavix is contraindicated in patients with active pathological bleeding such as peptic ulcer or intracranial hemorrhage. 4.2 Hypersensitivity Plavix is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to clopidogrel or any component of the product [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS CYP2C19 inhibitors: Avoid concomitant use of omeprazole or esomeprazole. (5.1) Bleeding: Plavix increases risk of bleeding. Discontinue 5 days prior to elective surgery. (5.2) Premature discontinuation increases risk of cardiovascular events. (5.3) Recent transient ischemic attack or stroke: Combination use of Plavix and aspirin is not more effective than Plavix alone, but increases major bleeding. (5.4) Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has been reported. (5.5) Cross-reactivity among thienopyridines has been reported. (5.6) 5.1 Diminished Antiplatelet Activity Due to Impaired CYP2C19 Function Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is achieved through an active metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by genetic variations in CYP2C19 [see Boxed Warning] and by concomitant medications that interfere with CYP2C19. Proton Pump Inhibitors Avoid concomitant use of Plavix with omeprazole or esomeprazole because both significantly reduce the antiplatelet activity of Plavix [see Drug Interactions (7.1) and Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. 5.2 General Risk of Bleeding Thienopyridines, including Plavix, increase the risk of bleeding. If a patient is to undergo surgery and an antiplatelet effect is not desired, discontinue Plavix five days prior to surgery. In patients who stopped therapy more than five days prior to CABG the rates of major bleeding were similar (event rate 4.4% Plavix + aspirin; 5.3% placebo + aspirin). In patients who remained on therapy within five days of CABG, the major bleeding rate was 9.6% for Plavix + aspirin, and 6.3% for placebo + aspirin. Thienopyridines inhibit platelet aggregation for the lifetime of the platelet (7–10 days), so withholding a dose will not be useful in managing a bleeding event or the risk of bleeding associated with an invasive procedure. Because the half-life of clopidogrel's active metabolite is short, it may be possible to restore hemostasis by administering exogenous platelets; however, platelet transfusions within 4 hours of the loading dose or 2 hours of the maintenance dose may be less effective. 5.3 Discontinuation of Plavix Avoid lapses in therapy, and if Plavix must be temporarily discontinued, restart as soon as possible. Premature discontinuation of Plavix may increase the risk of cardiovascular events. 5.4 Patients with Recent Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) or Stroke In patients with recent TIA or stroke who are at high risk for recurrent ischemic events, the combination of aspirin and Plavix has not been shown to be more effective than Plavix alone, but the combination has been shown to increase major bleeding. 5.5 Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) TTP, sometimes fatal, has been reported following use of Plavix, sometimes after a short exposure (<2 weeks). TTP is a serious condition that requires urgent treatment including plasmapheresis (plasma exchange). It is characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (schistocytes [fragmented RBCs] seen on peripheral smear), neurological findings, renal dysfunction, and fever [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. 5.6 Cross-Reactivity among Thienopyridines Hypersensitivity including rash, angioedema or hematologic reaction have been reported in patients receiving Plavix, including patients with a history of hypersensitivity or hematologic reaction to other thienopyridines [see Contraindications (4.2) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are discussed below and elsewhere in the labeling: Bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] Bleeding, including life-threatening and fatal bleeding, is the most commonly reported adverse reaction. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Bristol-Myers Squibb/Sanofi Pharmaceuticals Partnership at 1-800-633-1610 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Studies Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions and durations of follow up, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Plavix has been evaluated for safety in more than 54,000 patients, including over 21,000 patients treated for 1 year or more. The clinically important adverse reactions observed in trials comparing Plavix plus aspirin to placebo plus aspirin and trials comparing Plavix alone to aspirin alone are discussed below. Bleeding CURE In CURE, Plavix use with aspirin was associated with an increase in major bleeding (primarily gastrointestinal and at puncture sites) compared to placebo with aspirin (see Table 1). The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (0.1%) and fatal bleeding (0.2%) were the same in both groups. Other bleeding events that were reported more frequently in the clopidogrel group were epistaxis, hematuria, and bruise. The overall incidence of bleeding is described in Table 1. Table 1: CURE Incidence of Bleeding Complications (% patients) Event Plavix (+ aspirin)Other standard therapies were used as appropriate. Placebo (+ aspirin) (n=6259) (n=6303) Major bleeding Life-threatening and other major bleeding. 3.7 Major bleeding event rate for Plavix + aspirin was dose-dependent on aspirin: <100 mg = 2.6%; 100–200 mg = 3.5%; >200 mg = 4.9% Major bleeding event rates for Plavix + aspirin by age were: <65 years = 2.5%, ≥65 to <75 years = 4.1%, ≥75 years = 5.9% 2.7 Major bleeding event rate for placebo + aspirin was dose-dependent on aspirin: <100 mg = 2.0%; 100–200 mg = 2.3%; >200 mg = 4.0% Major bleeding event rates for placebo + aspirin by age were: <65 years = 2.1%, ≥65 to <75 years = 3.1%, ≥75 years = 3.6% Life-threatening bleeding 2.2 1.8 Fatal 0.2 0.2 5 g/dL hemoglobin drop 0.9 0.9 Requiring surgical intervention 0.7 0.7 Hemorrhagic strokes 0.1 0.1 Requiring inotropes 0.5 0.5 Requiring transfusion (≥4 units) 1.2 1.0 Other major bleeding 1.6 1.0 Significantly disabling 0.4 0.3 Intraocular bleeding with significant loss of vision 0.05 0.03 Requiring 2–3 units of blood 1.3 0.9 Minor bleeding Led to interruption of study medication. 5.1 2.4 Ninety-two percent (92%) of the patients in the CURE study received heparin or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and the rate of bleeding in these patients was similar to the overall results. COMMIT In COMMIT, similar rates of major bleeding were observed in the Plavix and placebo groups, both of which also received aspirin (see Table 2). Table 2: Incidence of Bleeding Events in COMMIT (% patients) Type of bleeding Plavix (+ aspirin) (n=22961) Placebo (+ aspirin) (n=22891) p-value MajorMajor bleeds were cerebral bleeds or non-cerebral bleeds thought to have caused death or that required transfusion. noncerebral or cerebral bleedingThe relative rate of major noncerebral or cerebral bleeding was independent of age. Event rates for Plavix + aspirin by age were: <60 years = 0.3%, ≥60 to <70 years = 0.7%, ≥70 years = 0.8%. Event rates for placebo + aspirin by age were: <60 years = 0.4%, ≥60 to <70 years = 0.6%, ≥70 years = 0.7%. 0.6 0.5 0.59 Major noncerebral 0.4 0.3 0.48 Fatal 0.2 0.2 0.90 Hemorrhagic stroke 0.2 0.2 0.91 Fatal 0.2 0.2 0.81 Other noncerebral bleeding (non-major) 3.6 3.1 0.005 Any noncerebral bleeding 3.9 3.4 0.004 CAPRIE (Plavix vs. Aspirin) In CAPRIE, gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurred at a rate of 2.0% in those taking Plavix vs. 2.7% in those taking aspirin; bleeding requiring hospitalization occurred in 0.7% and 1.1%, respectively. The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage was 0.4% for Plavix compared to 0.5% for aspirin. Other bleeding events that were reported more frequently in the Plavix group were epistaxis and hematoma. Other Adverse Events In CURE and CHARISMA, which compared Plavix plus aspirin to aspirin alone, there was no difference in the rate of adverse events (other than bleeding) between Plavix and placebo. In CAPRIE, which compared Plavix to aspirin, pruritus was more frequently reported in those taking Plavix. No other difference in the rate of adverse events (other than bleeding) was reported. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Plavix. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of an unknown size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia/pancytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), acquired hemophilia A Eye disorders: Eye (conjunctival, ocular, retinal) bleeding Gastrointestinal disorders: Gastrointestinal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage with fatal outcome, colitis (including ulcerative or lymphocytic colitis), pancreatitis, stomatitis, gastric/duodenal ulcer, diarrhea General disorders and administration site condition: Fever, hemorrhage of operative wound Hepato-biliary disorders: Acute liver failure, hepatitis (non-infectious), abnormal liver function test Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactoid reactions, serum sickness Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders: Musculoskeletal bleeding, myalgia, arthralgia, arthritis Nervous system disorders: Taste disorders, fatal intracranial bleeding, headache Psychiatric disorders: Confusion, hallucinations Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Bronchospasm, interstitial pneumonitis, respiratory tract bleeding, eosinophilic pneumonia Renal and urinary disorders: Increased creatinine levels Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Maculopapular, erythematous or exfoliative rash, urticaria, bullous dermatitis, eczema, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), angioedema, drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), erythema multiforme, skin bleeding, lichen planus, generalized pruritus Vascular disorders: Vasculitis, hypotension
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), warfarin, selective serotonin and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, SNRIs): Increases risk of bleeding. (7.2,7.3,7.4) 7.1 CYP2C19 Inhibitors Clopidogrel is metabolized to its active metabolite in part by CYP2C19. Concomitant use of certain drugs that inhibit the activity of this enzyme results in reduced plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet inhibition [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI) Avoid concomitant use of Plavix with omeprazole or esomeprazole. In clinical studies, omeprazole was shown to reduce the antiplatelet activity of Plavix when given concomitantly or 12 hours apart. A higher dose regimen of clopidogrel concomitantly administered with omeprazole increases antiplatelet response; an appropriate dose regimen has not been established. A similar reduction in antiplatelet activity was observed with esomeprazole when given concomitantly with Plavix. Consider using another acid-reducing agent with minimal or no CYP2C19 inhibitory effect on the formation of clopidogrel active metabolite. Dexlansoprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole had less effect on the antiplatelet activity of Plavix than did omeprazole or esomeprazole [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 7.2 Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Coadministration of Plavix and NSAIDs increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. 7.3 Warfarin (CYP2C9 Substrates) Although the administration of clopidogrel 75 mg per day did not modify the pharmacokinetics of S-warfarin (a CYP2C9 substrate) or INR in patients receiving long-term warfarin therapy, coadministration of Plavix with warfarin increases the risk of bleeding because of independent effects on hemostasis. However, at high concentrations in vitro, clopidogrel inhibits CYP2C9. 7.4 SSRIs and SNRIs Since selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) affect platelet activation, the concomitant administration of SSRIs and SNRIs with clopidogrel may increase the risk of bleeding.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Nursing mothers: Discontinue drug or nursing. (8.3) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category B Reproduction studies performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 500 and 300 mg/kg/day, respectively (65 and 78 times the recommended daily human dose, respectively, on a mg/m2 basis), revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or fetotoxicity due to clopidogrel. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of a human response, Plavix should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Studies in rats have shown that clopidogrel and/or its metabolites are excreted in the milk. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from clopidogrel, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric populations have not been established. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial (CLARINET) did not demonstrate a clinical benefit of clopidogrel in neonates and infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease palliated with a systemic-to-pulmonary arterial shunt. Possible factors contributing to this outcome were the dose of clopidogrel, the concomitant administration of aspirin and the late initiation of therapy following shunt palliation. It cannot be ruled out that a trial with a different design would demonstrate a clinical benefit in this patient population. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the total number of subjects in the CAPRIE and CURE controlled clinical studies, approximately 50% of patients treated with Plavix were 65 years of age and older, and 15% were 75 years and older. In COMMIT, approximately 58% of the patients treated with Plavix were 60 years and older, 26% of whom were 70 years and older. The observed risk of bleeding events with Plavix plus aspirin versus placebo plus aspirin by age category is provided in Table 1 and Table 2 for the CURE and COMMIT trials, respectively [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. No dosage adjustment is necessary in elderly patients. 8.6 Renal Impairment Experience is limited in patients with severe and moderate renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].