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Prilosec Prescribing Information

This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Prilosec safely and effectively. Before taking Prilosec please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Prilosec.

Recent Changes

Indications and Usage, Treatment of Erosive Esophagitis (EE) due to Acid-Mediated GERD (1.5) 02/2016
Dosage and Administration, Recommended Pediatric Dosage Regimen by Indication (2.2) 02/2016
Contraindications (4) 02/2016

Indications And Usage

PRILOSEC is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) indicated for the: •Treatment of active duodenal ulcer in adults (1.1) • Eradication of Helicobacter pylori to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence in adults (1.2) •Treatment of active benign gastric ulcer in adults (1.3) •Treatment of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in patients 1 year of age and older (1.4) •Treatment of erosive esophagitis (EE) due to acid-mediated GERD in patients 1 month of age and older (1.5) •Maintenance of healing of EE due to acid-mediated GERD in patients 1 year of age and older (1.6) •Pathologic hypersecretory conditions in adults (1.7) 1.1 Treatment of Active Duodenal Ulcer PRILOSEC is indicated for short-term treatment of active duodenal ulcer in adults. Most patients heal within four weeks. Some patients may require an additional four weeks of therapy. 1.2 Helicobacter pylori Eradication to Reduce the Risk of Duodenal Ulcer Recurrence Eradication of H. pylori has been shown to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence. Triple Therapy PRILOSEC in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin, is indicated for treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or up to 1-year history) to eradicate H. pylori in adults. Dual Therapy PRILOSEC in combination with clarithromycin is indicated for treatment of patients with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease to eradicate H. pylori in adults. Among patients who fail therapy, PRILOSEC with clarithromycin is more likely to be associated with the development of clarithromycin resistance as compared with triple therapy. In patients who fail therapy, susceptibility testing should be done. If resistance to clarithromycin is demonstrated or susceptibility testing is not possible, alternative antimicrobial therapy should be instituted [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4) and the clarithromycin prescribing information, Microbiology section.] 1.3 Treatment of Active Benign Gastric Ulcer PRILOSEC is indicated for short-term treatment (4 to 8 weeks) of active benign gastric ulcer in adults. 1.4 Treatment of Symptomatic Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) PRILOSEC is indicated for the treatment of heartburn and other symptoms associated with GERD for up to 4 weeks in patients 1 year of age and older. 1.5 Treatment of Erosive Esophagitis (EE) Due to Acid-Mediated GERD Pediatric Patients 1 Year of Age to Adults PRILOSEC is indicated for the short-term treatment (4 to 8 weeks) of EE due to acid-mediated GERD that has been diagnosed by endoscopy in patients 1 year of age and older. The efficacy of PRILOSEC used for longer than 8 weeks in patients with EE has not been established. If a patient does not respond to 8 weeks of treatment, an additional 4 weeks of treatment may be given. If there is recurrence of EE or GERD symptoms (e.g., heartburn), additional 4 to 8 week courses of PRILOSEC may be considered. Pediatric Patients 1 Month to Less than 1 Year of Age PRILOSEC is indicated for the short-term treatment (up to 6 weeks) of EE due to acid-mediated GERD in pediatric patients 1 month to less than 1 year of age. 1.6 Maintenance of Healing of EE Due to Acid-Mediated GERD PRILOSEC is indicated for the maintenance healing of EE due to acid-mediated GERD in patients 1 year of age and older. Controlled studies do not extend beyond 12 months. 1.7 Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions PRILOSEC is indicated for the long-term treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions (e.g., Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, multiple endocrine adenomas and systemic mastocytosis) in adults.

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Dosage And Administration

Indication Recommended Adult (2.1) and Pediatric Dosage (2.2)
Treatment of Active Duodenal Ulcer 20 mg once daily for 4 weeks; some patients may require an additional 4 weeks (2.1)
H. pylori Eradication to Reduce the Risk of Duodenal Ulcer Recurrence
Triple Therapy:
PRILOSEC Amoxicillin Clarithromycin 20 mg 1000 mg 500 mg Each drug twice daily for 10 days (2.1)*
Dual Therapy:
PRILOSEC Clarithromycin 40 mg once daily for 14 days** 500 mg three times daily for 14 days (2.1)
Active Benign Gastric Ulcer 40 mg once daily for 4 to 8 weeks (2.1)
Symptomatic GERD 20 mg once daily for up to 4 weeks (2.1) See full prescribing information for weight based dosing in pediatric patients 1 year of age and older (2.2)
EE due to Acid-Mediated GERD 20 mg once daily for 4 to 8 weeks (2.1)*** See full prescribing information for weight based dosing in pediatric patients 1 month of age and older (2.2)
Maintenance of Healing of EE due to Acid-Mediated GERD 20 mg once daily (2.1)**** See full prescribing information for weight based dosing in pediatric patients 1 year of age and older (2.2)
Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions Starting dose is 60 mg once daily (varies with individual patient, see full prescribing information) as long as clinically indicated (2.1)

Dosage Forms And Strengths

PRILOSEC Delayed-Release Capsules •10 mg, are opaque, hard gelatin, apricot and amethyst colored capsules, coded 606 on cap and PRILOSEC 10 on the body. •20 mg, are opaque, hard gelatin, amethyst colored capsules, coded 742 on cap and PRILOSEC 20 on the body. •40 mg, are opaque, hard gelatin, apricot and amethyst colored capsules, coded 743 on cap and PRILOSEC 40 on the body. PRILOSEC For Delayed-Release Oral Suspension •2.5 mg and 10 mg unit dose packets containing a fine yellow powder, consisting of white to brownish omeprazole granules and pale yellow inactive granules. •PRILOSEC delayed-release capsules: 10 mg, 20 mg and 40 mg (3) •PRILOSEC for delayed-release oral suspension: 2.5 mg and 10 mg unit dose packets (3)

Contraindications

•PRILOSEC is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to substituted benzimidazoles or to any component of the formulation. Hypersensitivity reactions may include anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, and urticaria [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Adverse Reactions (6)]. • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), including PRILOSEC, are contraindicated in patients receiving rilpivirine-containing products [see Drug Interactions (7)]. •For information about contraindications of antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated in combination with PRILOSEC, refer to thesection of their package inserts. •Patients with known hypersensitivity to substituted benzimidazoles or any component of the formulation. (4) •Patients receiving rilpivirine-containing products. (4, 7) •Refer to the Contraindications section of the prescribing information for clarithromycin and amoxicillin, when administered in combination with PRILOSEC. (4)

Warning and Cautions

• Gastric Malignancy: Symptomatic response does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. (5.1) • Atrophic Gastritis: Noted with long-term therapy. (5.2) •Acute Interstitial Nephritis: Observed in patients taking PPIs. (5.3) • Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency: Daily long-term use (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption or a deficiency of cyanocobalamin. (5.4) • Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea: PPI therapy may be associated with increased risk. (5.5) • Interaction with Clopidogrel: Avoid concomitant use of PRILOSEC. (5.6, 7) • Bone Fracture: Long-term and multiple daily dose PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist or spine. (5.7) • Hypomagnesemia: Reported rarely with prolonged treatment with PPIs. (5.8) • Interaction with St. John’s Wort or Rifampin: Avoid concomitant use of PRILOSEC. (5.9, 7) • Interactions with Diagnostic Investigations for Neuroendocrine Tumors: Increased Chromogranin A (CgA) levels may interfere with diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors; temporarily stop PRILOSEC at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels. (5.10, 7) • Interaction with Methotrexate: Concomitant use with PPIs may elevate and/or prolong serum concentrations of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to toxicity. With high dose methotrexate administration, consider a temporary withdrawal of PRILOSEC (5.11, 7). 5.1 Presence of Gastric Malignancy Symptomatic response to therapy with PRILOSEC does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. 5.2 Atrophic Gastritis Atrophic gastritis has been noted occasionally in gastric corpus biopsies from patients treated long-term with PRILOSEC. 5.3 Acute Interstitial Nephritis Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs including PRILOSEC. Acute interstitial nephritis may occur at any point during PPI therapy and is generally attributed to an idiopathic hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue PRILOSEC if acute interstitial nephritis develops [see Contraindications (4)]. 5.4 Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) caused by hypo- or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed in patients treated with PRILOSEC. 5.5 Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea Published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy like PRILOSEC may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents. For more information specific to antibacterial agents (clarithromycin and amoxicillin) indicated for use in combination with PRILOSEC, refer to Warnings and Precautions sections of the corresponding prescribing information. 5.6 Interaction with Clopidogrel Avoid concomitant use of PRILOSEC with clopidogrel. Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is entirely due to an active metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by use with concomitant medications, such as omeprazole, that inhibit CYP2C19 activity. Concomitant use of clopidogrel with 80 mg omeprazole reduces the pharmacological activity of clopidogrel, even when administered 12 hours apart. When using PRILOSEC, consider alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 5.7 Bone Fracture Several published observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist, or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) , Adverse Reactions (6.3)]. 5.8 Hypomagnesemia Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI. For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions (6.3)]. 5.9 Interaction with St. John’s Wort or Rifampin Drugs which induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as St. John’s Wort or rifampin) can substantially decrease omeprazole concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Avoid concomitant use of PRILOSEC with St. John’s Wort or rifampin. 5.10 Interactions with Diagnostic Investigations for Neuroendocrine Tumors Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to drug-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Healthcare providers should temporarily stop PRILOSEC treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g. for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary [see Drug Interactions (7)]. 5.11 Interaction with Methotrexate Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see Drug Interactions (7)].

Adverse Reactions

The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in labeling: •Acute Interstitial Nephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] •Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] • Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] •Bone Fracture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] Hypomagnesemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] Adults: Most common adverse reactions in adults (incidence ≥2%) are •Headache, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and flatulence (6) Pediatric patients (1 to 16 years of age): •Safety profile similar to that in adults, except that respiratory system events and fever were the most frequently reported reactions in pediatric studies. (8.4) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact AstraZeneca at 1-800-236-9933 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience with PRILOSEC Monotherapy Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The safety data described below reflects exposure to PRILOSEC delayed-release capsules in 3096 patients from worldwide clinical trials (465 patients from US studies and 2,631 patients from international studies). Indications clinically studied in US trials included duodenal ulcer, resistant ulcer, and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The international clinical trials were double blind and open-label in design. The most common adverse reactions reported (i.e., with an incidence rate ≥2%) from PRILOSEC-treated patients enrolled in these studies included headache (7%), abdominal pain (5%), nausea (4%), diarrhea (4%), vomiting (3%), and flatulence (3%). Additional adverse reactions that were reported with an incidence ≥1% included acid regurgitation (2%), upper respiratory infection (2%), constipation (2%), dizziness (2%), rash (2%), asthenia (1%), back pain (1%), and cough (1%). The clinical trial safety profile in patients greater than 65 years of age was similar to that in patients 65 years of age or less. The clinical trial safety profile in pediatric patients who received PRILOSEC delayed-release capsules was similar to that in adult patients. Unique to the pediatric population, however, adverse reactions of the respiratory system were frequently reported in the 1 month to <1 year age group, the 1 to <2 year age group, and the 2 to 16 year age group (42%, 75% and 19%, respectively). In addition, otitis media was frequently reported in the 1 month to <1 year age group (22%), fever was frequently reported in the 1 to <2 year age group (33%), and accidental injuries were frequently reported in the 2 to 16 year age group (4%) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. 6.2 Clinical Trials Experience with PRILOSEC in Combination Therapy for H. pylori Eradication In clinical trials using either dual therapy with PRILOSEC and clarithromycin, or triple therapy with PRILOSEC, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin, no adverse reactions unique to these drug combinations were observed. Adverse reactions observed were limited to those previously reported with omeprazole, clarithromycin, or amoxicillin alone. Dual Therapy (PRILOSEC/clarithromycin) Adverse reactions observed in controlled clinical trials using combination therapy with PRILOSEC and clarithromycin (n = 346) that differed from those previously described for PRILOSEC alone were taste perversion (15%), tongue discoloration (2%), rhinitis (2%), pharyngitis (1%) and flu-syndrome (1%). (For more information on clarithromycin, refer to the clarithromycin prescribing information, Adverse Reactions section.) Triple Therapy (PRILOSEC/clarithromycin/amoxicillin) The most frequent adverse reactions observed in clinical trials using combination therapy with PRILOSEC, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (n = 274) were diarrhea (14%), taste perversion (10%), and headache (7%). None of these occurred at a higher frequency than that reported by patients taking antimicrobial agents alone. (For more information on clarithromycin or amoxicillin, refer to the respective prescribing information, Adverse Reactions sections.) 6.3 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of PRILOSEC. Because these reactions are voluntarily reported from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their actual frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Body As a Whole: Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, interstitial nephritis, urticaria, (see also Skin below); fever; pain; fatigue; malaise Cardiovascular: Chest pain or angina, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitations, elevated blood pressure, peripheral edema Endocrine: Gynecomastia Gastrointestinal: Pancreatitis (some fatal), anorexia, irritable colon, fecal discoloration, esophageal candidiasis, mucosal atrophy of the tongue, stomatitis, abdominal swelling, dry mouth, microscopic colitis. During treatment with omeprazole, gastric fundic gland polyps have been noted rarely. These polyps are benign and appear to be reversible when treatment is discontinued. Gastroduodenal carcinoids have been reported in patients with ZE syndrome on long-term treatment with PRILOSEC. This finding is believed to be a manifestation of the underlying condition, which is known to be associated with such tumors. Hepatic: Liver disease including hepatic failure (some fatal), liver necrosis (some fatal), hepatic encephalopathy hepatocellular disease, cholestatic disease, mixed hepatitis, jaundice, and elevations of liver function tests [ALT, AST, GGT, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin] Infections and Infestations: Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea Metabolism and Nutritional disorders: Hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, with or without hypocalcemia and/or hypokalemia, hyponatremia, weight gain Musculoskeletal: Muscle weakness, myalgia, muscle cramps, joint pain, leg pain, bone fracture Nervous System/Psychiatric: Psychiatric and sleep disturbances including depression, agitation, aggression, hallucinations, confusion, insomnia, nervousness, apathy, somnolence, anxiety, and dream abnormalities; tremors, paresthesia; vertigo Respiratory: Epistaxis, pharyngeal pain Skin: Severe generalized skin reactions including toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal), Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and erythema multiforme; photosensitivity; urticaria; rash; skin inflammation; pruritus; petechiae; purpura; alopecia; dry skin; hyperhidrosis Special Senses: Tinnitus, taste perversion Ocular: Optic atrophy, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, optic neuritis, dry eye syndrome, ocular irritation, blurred vision, double vision Urogenital: Interstitial nephritis, hematuria, proteinuria, elevated serum creatinine, microscopic pyuria, urinary tract infection, glycosuria, urinary frequency, testicular pain Hematologic: Agranulocytosis (some fatal), hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, leukocytosis

Drug Interactions

Tables 3 and 4 include drugs with clinically important drug interactions and interaction with diagnostics when administered concomitantly with PRILOSEC and instructions for preventing or managing them. Consult the labeling of concomitantly used drugs to obtain further information about interactions with PPIs. Table 3: Clinically Relevant Interactions Affecting Drugs Co-Administered with PRILOSEC and Interaction with Diagnostics Antiretrovirals Clinical Impact: The effect of PPIs on antiretroviral drugs is variable. The clinical importance and the mechanisms behind these interactions are not always known. •Decreased exposure of some antiretroviral drugs (e.g., rilpivirine, atazanavir and nelfinavir) when used concomitantly with omeprazole may reduce antiviral effect and promote the development of drug resistance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. •Increased exposure of other antiretroviral drugs (e.g., saquinavir) when used concomitantly with omeprazole may increase toxicity [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. •There are other antiretroviral drugs which do not result in clinically relevant interactions with omeprazole. Intervention: Rilpivirine-containing products: Concomitant use with PRILOSEC is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)]. Atazanavir: Avoid concomitant use with PRILOSEC. See prescribing information for atazanavir for dosing information. Nelfinavir: Avoid concomitant use with PRILOSEC. See prescribing information for nelfinavir. Saquinavir: See the prescribing information for saquinavir for monitoring of potential saquinavir-related toxicities. Other antiretrovirals: See prescribing information for specific antiretroviral drugs. Warfarin Clinical Impact: Increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving PPIs, including omeprazole, and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Intervention: Monitor INR and prothrombin time and adjust the dose of warfarin, if needed, to maintain target INR range. Methotrexate Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of omeprazole with methotrexate (primarily at high dose) may elevate and prolong serum concentrations of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. No formal drug interaction studies of high-dose methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]. Intervention: A temporary withdrawal of PRILOSEC may be considered in some patients receiving high-dose methotrexate. CYP2C19 Substrates (e.g., clopidogrel, citalopram, cilostazol, phenytoin, diazepam) Clopidogrel Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of omeprazole 80 mg results in reduced plasma concentrations of the active metabolite of clopidogrel and a reduction in platelet inhibition [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. There are no adequate combination studies of a lower dose of omeprazole or a higher dose of clopidogrel in comparison with the approved dose of clopidogrel. Intervention: Avoid concomitant use with PRILOSEC. Consider use of alternative anti-platelet therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. Citalopram Clinical Impact: Increased exposure of citalopram leading to an increased risk of QT prolongation [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention: Limit the dose of citalopram to a maximum of 20 mg per day. See prescribing information for citalopram. Cilostazol Clinical Impact: Increased exposure of one of the active metabolites of cilostazol (3,4-dihydro-cilostazol) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Intervention: Reduce the dose of cilostazol to 50 mg twice daily. See prescribing information for cilostazol. Phenytoin Clinical Impact: Potential for increased exposure of phenytoin. Intervention: Monitor phenytoin serum concentrations. Dose adjustment may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See prescribing information for phenytoin. Diazepam Clinical Impact: Increased exposure of diazepam [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Intervention: Monitor patients for increased sedation and reduce the dose of diazepam as needed. Digoxin Clinical Impact: Potential for increased exposure of digoxin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Intervention: Monitor digoxin concentrations. Dose adjustment may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See digoxin prescribing information. Drugs Dependent on Gastric pH for Absorption (e.g., iron salts, erlotinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, mycophenolate mofetil, ketoconazole/itraconazole) Clinical Impact: Omeprazole can reduce the absorption of other drugs due to its effect on reducing intragastric acidity. Intervention: Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF): Co-administration of omeprazole in healthy subjects and in transplant patients receiving MMF has been reported to reduce the exposure to the active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), possibly due to a decrease in MMF solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical relevance of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving PRILOSEC and MMF. Use PRILOSEC with caution in transplant patients receiving MMF [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. See the prescribing information for other drugs dependent on gastric pH for absorption. Combination Therapy with Clarithromycin and Amoxicillin Clinical Impact: Concomitant administration of clarithromycin with other drugs can lead to serious adverse reactions, including potentially fatal arrhythmias, and are contraindicated. Amoxicillin also has drug interactions. Intervention: See Contraindications, Warnings and Precautions in prescribing information for clarithromycin. See Drug Interactions in prescribing information for amoxicillin Tacrolimus Clinical Impact: Potential for increased exposure of tacrolimus, especially in transplant patients who are intermediate or poor metabolizers of CYP2C19. Intervention: Monitor tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. Dose adjustment may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See prescribing information for tacrolimus. Interactions with Investigations of Neuroendocrine Tumors Clinical Impact: Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to PPI-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10), Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. Intervention: Temporarily stop PRILOSEC treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g., for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary. Interaction with Secretin Stimulation Test Clinical Impact: Hyper-response in gastrin secretion in response to secretin stimulation test, falsely suggesting gastrinoma. Intervention: Temporarily stop PRILOSEC treatment at least 14 days before assessing to allow gastrin levels to return to baseline [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. False Positive Urine Tests for THC Clinical Impact: There have been reports of false positive urine screening tests for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in patients receiving PPIs. Intervention: An alternative confirmatory method should be considered to verify positive results. Other Clinical Impact: There have been clinical reports of interactions with other drugs metabolized via the cytochrome P450 system (e.g., cyclosporine, disulfiram). Intervention: Monitor patients to determine if it is necessary to adjust the dosage of these other drugs when taken concomitantly with PRILOSEC. Table 4: Clinically Relevant Interactions Affecting PRILOSEC When Co-Administered with Other Drugs CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 Inducers Clinical Impact: Decreased exposure of omeprazole when used concomitantly with strong inducers [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Intervention: St. John’s Wort, rifampin: Avoid concomitant use with PRILOSEC [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]. Ritonavir-containing products: see prescribing information for specific drugs CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 Inhibitors Clinical Impact: Increased exposure of omeprazole [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Intervention: Voriconazole: Dose adjustment of PRILOSEC is not normally required. However, in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, who may require higher doses, dose adjustment may be considered. See prescribing information for voriconazole. See full prescribing information for a list of clinically important drug interactions. (7)

Use In Specific Populations

8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with PRILOSEC in pregnant women. Available epidemiologic data fail to demonstrate an increased risk of major congenital malformations or other adverse pregnancy outcomes with first trimester omeprazole use. Reproduction studies in rats and rabbits resulted in dose-dependent embryo-lethality at omeprazole doses that were approximately 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg (based on a body surface area for a 60 kg person). Teratogenicity was not observed in animal reproduction studies with administration of oral esomeprazole (an enantiomer of omeprazole) magnesium in rats and rabbits during organogenesis with doses about 68 times and 42 times, respectively, an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole (based on body surface area for a 60 kg person). However, changes in bone morphology were observed in offspring of rats dosed through most of pregnancy and lactation at doses equal to or greater than approximately 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole [see Data]. The estimated background risks of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population are unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. Data Human Data Four published epidemiological studies compared the frequency of congenital abnormalities among infants born to women who used omeprazole during pregnancy with the frequency of abnormalities among infants of women exposed to H2-receptor antagonists or other controls. A population-based retrospective cohort epidemiological study from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry, covering approximately 99% of pregnancies, from 1995 to 99, reported on 955 infants (824 exposed during the first trimester with 39 of these exposed beyond first trimester, and 131 exposed after the first trimester) whose mothers used omeprazole during pregnancy. The number of infants exposed in utero to omeprazole that had any malformation, low birth weight, low Apgar score, or hospitalization was similar to the number observed in this population. The number of infants born with ventricular septal defects and the number of stillborn infants was slightly higher in the omeprazole-exposed infants than the expected number in this population. A population-based retrospective cohort study covering all live births in Denmark from 1996 to 2009, reported on 1,800 live births whose mothers used omeprazole during the first trimester of pregnancy and 837, 317 live births whose mothers did not use any proton pump inhibitor. The overall rate of birth defects in infants born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole was 2.9% and 2.6% in infants born to mothers not exposed to any proton pump inhibitor during the first trimester. A retrospective cohort study reported on 689 pregnant women exposed to either H2-blockers or omeprazole in the first trimester (134 exposed to omeprazole) and 1,572 pregnant women unexposed to either during the first trimester. The overall malformation rate in offspring born to mothers with first trimester exposure to omeprazole, an H2-blocker, or were unexposed was 3.6%, 5.5%, and 4.1% respectively. A small prospective observational cohort study followed 113 women exposed to omeprazole during pregnancy (89% with first trimester exposures). The reported rate of major congenital malformations was 4% in the omeprazole group, 2% in controls exposed to non-teratogens, and 2.8% in disease-paired controls. Rates of spontaneous and elective abortions, preterm deliveries, gestational age at delivery, and mean birth weight were similar among the groups. Several studies have reported no apparent adverse short-term effects on the infant when single dose oral or intravenous omeprazole was administered to over 200 pregnant women as premedication for cesarean section under general anesthesia. Animal Data Omeprazole Reproductive studies conducted with omeprazole in rats at oral doses up to 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) and in rabbits at doses up to 69.1 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) during organogenesis did not disclose any evidence for a teratogenic potential of omeprazole. In rabbits, omeprazole in a dose range of 6.9 to 69.1 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) administered during organogenesis produced dose-related increases in embryo-lethality, fetal resorptions, and pregnancy disruptions. In rats, dose-related embryo/fetal toxicity and postnatal developmental toxicity were observed in offspring resulting from parents treated with omeprazole at 13.8 to 138.0 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 34 times an oral human doses of 40 mg on a body surface area basis), administered prior to mating through the lactation period. Esomeprazole The data described below was generated from studies using esomeprazole, an enantiomer of omeprazole. The animal to human dose multiples are based on the assumption of equal systemic exposure to esomeprazole in humans following oral administration of either 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole. No effects on embryo-fetal development were observed in reproduction studies with esomeprazole magnesium in rats at oral doses up to 280 mg/kg/day (about 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg on a body surface area basis) or in rabbits at oral doses up to 86 mg/kg/day (about 42 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis) administered during organogenesis. A pre- and postnatal developmental toxicity study in rats with additional endpoints to evaluate bone development was performed with esomeprazole magnesium at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). Neonatal/early postnatal (birth to weaning) survival was decreased at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). Body weight and body weight gain were reduced and neurobehavioral or general developmental delays in the immediate post-weaning timeframe were evident at doses equal to or greater than 69 mg/kg/day (about 17 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). In addition, decreased femur length, width and thickness of cortical bone, decreased thickness of the tibial growth plate and minimal to mild bone marrow hypocellularity were noted at doses equal to or greater than 14 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). Physeal dysplasia in the femur was observed in offspring of rats treated with oral doses of esomeprazole magnesium at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). Effects on maternal bone were observed in pregnant and lactating rats in the pre- and postnatal toxicity study when esomeprazole magnesium was administered at oral doses of 14 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 3.4 to 68 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). When rats were dosed from gestational day 7 through weaning on postnatal day 21, a statistically significant decrease in maternal femur weight of up to 14% (as compared to placebo treatment) was observed at doses equal to or greater than 138 mg/kg/day (about 34 times an oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). A pre- and postnatal development study in rats with esomeprazole strontium (using equimolar doses compared to esomeprazole magnesium study) produced similar results in dams and pups as described above. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Limited data suggest omeprazole may be present in human milk. There is no information on the effects of omeprazole on the breastfed infant or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for PRILOSEC and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from PRILOSEC or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of PRILOSEC have been established in pediatric patients 1 to 16 years for the treatment of symptomatic GERD, treatment of EE due to acid-mediated GERD, and maintenance of healing of EE due to acid-mediated GERD. Use of PRILOSEC in this age group is supported by adequate and well-controlled studies in adults and uncontrolled safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetic studies performed in pediatric and adolescent patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) , Clinical Studies (14.8)]. The safety and effectiveness of PRILOSEC have been established in pediatric patients 1 month to less than 1 year of age for the treatment of EE due to acid-mediated GERD and is supported by adequate and well-controlled studies in adults and safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic studies performed in pediatric patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. In the pediatric population, adverse reactions of the respiratory system were frequently reported in the entire (1 month to 16 year) age group. Otitis media was frequently reported in the 1 month to <1 year age group, fever was frequently reported in the 1 to <2 year age group, and accidental injuries were frequently reported in the 2 to 16 year age group [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. The safety and effectiveness of PRILOSEC have not been established in: •patients less than 1 year of age for: oTreatment of symptomatic GERD oMaintenance of healing of EE due to acid-mediated GERD •pediatric patients for: oTreatment of active duodenal ulcer oH. pylori eradication to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence oTreatment of active benign gastric ulcer oPathological hypersecretory conditions •patients less than 1 month of age for any indication. Juvenile Animal Data Esomeprazole, an enantiomer of omeprazole, was shown to decrease body weight, body weight gain, femur weight, femur length, and overall growth at oral doses about 34 to 68 times a daily human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole based on body surface area in a juvenile rat toxicity study. The animal to human dose multiples are based on the assumption of equal systemic exposure to esomeprazole in humans following oral administration of either 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole. A 28-day toxicity study with a 14-day recovery phase was conducted in juvenile rats with esomeprazole magnesium at doses of 70 to 280 mg/kg/day (about 17 to 68 times a daily oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis). An increase in the number of deaths at the high dose of 280 mg/kg/day was observed when juvenile rats were administered esomeprazole magnesium from postnatal day 7 through postnatal day 35. In addition, doses equal to or greater than 140 mg/kg/day (about 34 times a daily oral human dose of 40 mg esomeprazole or 40 mg omeprazole on a body surface area basis), produced treatment-related decreases in body weight (approximately 14%) and body weight gain, decreases in femur weight and femur length, and affected overall growth. Comparable findings described above have also been observed in this study with another esomeprazole salt, esomeprazole strontium, at equimolar doses of esomeprazole. 8.5 Geriatric Use Omeprazole was administered to over 2000 elderly individuals (≥ 65 years of age) in clinical trials in the U.S. and Europe. There were no differences in safety and effectiveness between the elderly and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown the elimination rate was somewhat decreased in the elderly and bioavailability was increased. The plasma clearance of omeprazole was 250 mL/min (about half that of young volunteers) and its plasma half-life averaged one hour, about twice that of young healthy volunteers. However, no dosage adjustment is necessary in the elderly [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment In patients with hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A, B, or C) exposure to omeprazole substantially increased compared to healthy subjects. Dosage reduction of PRILOSEC to 10 mg once daily is recommended for patients with hepatic impairment for maintenance of healing of EE [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.7 Asian Population In studies of healthy subjects, Asians had approximately a four-fold higher exposure than Caucasians. Dosage reduction of PRILOSEC to 10 mg once daily is recommended for Asian patients for maintenance of healing of EE [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.5) ].

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