WARNING: SUICIDAL THOUGHTS AND BEHAVIORS Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies. These studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior with antidepressant use in patients over age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressant use in patients aged 65 and older [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. In patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy, monitor closely for worsening, and for emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Advise families and caregivers of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. PRISTIQ is not approved for use in pediatric patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) ]. WARNING: SUICIDAL THOUGHTS AND BEHAVIORS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents and young adults taking antidepressants (5.1). Monitor for worsening and emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors (5.1). PRISTIQ is not approved for use in pediatric patients (8.4).
|Dosage and Administration, General Instruction for Use (2.1) ||04/2014 |
|Dosage and Administration, Special populations (2.2) ||07/2014 |
|Dosage and Administration, Discontinuing PRISTIQ (2.4) ||04/2014 |
|Warnings and Precautions, Angle Closure Glaucoma(5.5) ||05/2014 |
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE PRISTIQ, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) [see Clinical Studies (14) and Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. The efficacy of PRISTIQ has been established in four short-term (8-week, placebo-controlled studies) and two maintenance studies in adult outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder. PRISTIQ, is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) (1).
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS PRISTIQ® (desvenlafaxine) Extended-Release Tablets are available as 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg tablets. 25 mg, tan, square pyramid tablet debossed with "W" over "25" on the flat side 50 mg, light pink, square pyramid tablet debossed with "W" over "50" on the flat side 100 mg, reddish-orange, square pyramid tablet debossed with "W" over "100" on the flat side PRISTIQ extended-release tablets: 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg (3). Each tablet contains 38 mg, 76 mg or 152 mg of desvenlafaxine succinate equivalent to 25 mg, 50 mg or 100 mg of desvenlafaxine, respectively (3).
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Hypersensitivity to desvenlafaxine succinate, venlafaxine hydrochloride or to any excipients in the PRISTIQ formulation. Angioedema has been reported in patients treated with PRISTIQ [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. The use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with PRISTIQ or within 7 days of stopping treatment with PRISTIQ is contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. The use of PRISTIQ within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders is also contraindicated [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Starting PRISTIQ in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue is also contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Hypersensitivity to desvenlafaxine succinate, venlafaxine hydrochloride or any excipients in the PRISTIQ formulation (4.1). Serotonin syndrome and MAOIs: Do not use MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with PRISTIQ or within 7 days of stopping treatment with PRISTIQ. Do not use PRISTIQ within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders. In addition, do not start PRISTIQ in a patient who is being treated with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue (4.2).
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Clinical Worsening/Suicide Risk: Monitor for clinical worsening and suicide risk (5.1). Serotonin Syndrome: Serotonin syndrome has been reported with SSRIs and SNRIs, including with PRISTIQ, both when taken alone, but especially when co-administered with other serotonergic agents (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, and St. John's Wort). If such symptoms occur, discontinue PRISTIQ and initiate supportive treatment. If concomitant use of PRISTIQ with other serotonergic drugs is clinically warranted, patients should be made aware of a potential increased risk for serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases (5.2). Elevated Blood Pressure: Control hypertension before initiating treatment. Monitor blood pressure regularly during treatment (5.3). Abnormal Bleeding: PRISTIQ may increase risk of bleeding events. Caution patients about risk of bleeding associated with concomitant use of PRISTIQ and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation (5.4). Angle Closure Glaucoma: Angle closure glaucoma has occurred in patients with untreated anatomically narrow angles treated with antidepressants. (5.5) Activation of Mania/Hypomania: Use cautiously in patients with Bipolar Disorder. Caution patients about risk of activation of mania/hypomania (5.6). Discontinuation Syndrome: Taper dose when possible and monitor for discontinuation symptoms (5.7). Seizure: Can occur. Use cautiously in patients with seizure disorder (5.8). Hyponatremia: Can occur in association with SIADH (5.9). Interstitial Lung Disease and Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Can occur (5.10). 5.1 Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled studies of antidepressant drugs (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18 to 24) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled studies in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term studies of 9 antidepressant drugs in over 4,400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled studies in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term studies (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug vs. placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1,000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1. Table 1 Age Range Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality per 1,000 Patients Treated Increases Compared to Placebo <18 14 additional cases 18 to 24 5 additional cases Decreases Compared to Placebo 25 to 64 1 fewer case ≥65 6 fewer cases No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric studies. There were suicides in the adult studies, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide. It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance studies in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression. All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases. The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality. Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms. If the decision has been made to discontinue treatment, medication should be tapered, as rapidly as is feasible, but with recognition that abrupt discontinuation can be associated with certain symptoms [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.7) for a description of the risks of discontinuation of PRISTIQ]. Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to healthcare providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for PRISTIQ should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose. Screening patients for bipolar disorder A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled studies) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown. However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression. It should be noted that PRISTIQ is not approved for use in treating bipolar depression. 5.2 Serotonin Syndrome The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs, including PRISTIQ, alone but particularly with concomitant use of other serotonergic drugs (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, and St. John's Wort), and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (in particular, MAOIs, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue). Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome. The concomitant use of PRISTIQ with MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders is contraindicated. PRISTIQ should also not be started in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. All reports with methylene blue that provided information on the route of administration involved intravenous administration in the dose range of 1 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg. No reports involved the administration of methylene blue by other routes (such as oral tablets or local tissue injection) or at lower doses. There may be circumstances when it is necessary to initiate treatment with a MAOI such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue in a patient taking PRISTIQ. PRISTIQ should be discontinued before initiating treatment with the MAOI [see Contraindications (4.2) and Dosage and Administration (2.6)]. If concomitant use of PRISTIQ with other serotonergic drugs, including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, tryptophan, and St. John's Wort is clinically warranted, patients should be made aware of a potential increased risk for serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. Treatment with PRISTIQ and any concomitant serotonergic agents should be discontinued immediately if the above events occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated. 5.3 Elevated Blood Pressure Patients receiving PRISTIQ should have regular monitoring of blood pressure since increases in blood pressure were observed in clinical studies [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Pre-existing hypertension should be controlled before initiating treatment with PRISTIQ. Caution should be exercised in treating patients with pre-existing hypertension, cardiovascular, or cerebrovascular conditions that might be compromised by increases in blood pressure. Cases of elevated blood pressure requiring immediate treatment have been reported with PRISTIQ. Sustained blood pressure increases could have adverse consequences. For patients who experience a sustained increase in blood pressure while receiving PRISTIQ, either dose reduction or discontinuation should be considered [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. 5.4 Abnormal Bleeding SSRIs and SNRIs, including PRISTIQ, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and other anticoagulants may add to this risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding events related to SSRIs and SNRIs have ranged from ecchymosis, hematoma, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages. Patients should be cautioned about the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of PRISTIQ and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation or bleeding. 5.5 Angle Closure Glaucoma Angle-Closure Glaucoma: The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including Pristiq may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy. 5.6 Activation of Mania/Hypomania During all MDD phase 2 and phase 3 studies, mania was reported for approximately 0.02% of patients treated with PRISTIQ. Activation of mania/hypomania has also been reported in a small proportion of patients with major affective disorder who were treated with other marketed antidepressants. As with all antidepressants, PRISTIQ should be used cautiously in patients with a history or family history of mania or hypomania. 5.7 Discontinuation Syndrome Discontinuation symptoms have been systematically and prospectively evaluated in patients treated with PRISTIQ during clinical studies in Major Depressive Disorder. Abrupt discontinuation or dose reduction has been associated with the appearance of new symptoms that include dizziness, nausea, headache, irritability, insomnia, diarrhea, anxiety, fatigue, abnormal dreams, and hyperhidrosis. In general, discontinuation events occurred more frequently with longer duration of therapy. During marketing of SNRIs (Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors), and SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors), there have been spontaneous reports of adverse events occurring upon discontinuation of these drugs, particularly when abrupt, including the following: dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesia, such as electric shock sensations), anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, hypomania, tinnitus, and seizures. While these events are generally self-limiting, there have been reports of serious discontinuation symptoms. Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment with PRISTIQ. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose, but at a more gradual rate [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. 5.8 Seizure Cases of seizure have been reported in pre-marketing clinical studies with PRISTIQ. PRISTIQ has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a seizure disorder. Patients with a history of seizures were excluded from pre-marketing clinical studies. PRISTIQ should be prescribed with caution in patients with a seizure disorder. 5.9 Hyponatremia Hyponatremia may occur as a result of treatment with SSRIs and SNRIs, including PRISTIQ. In many cases, this hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Cases with serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with SSRIs and SNRIs. Also, patients taking diuretics or who are otherwise volume depleted can be at greater risk [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.6)]. Discontinuation of PRISTIQ should be considered in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia and appropriate medical intervention should be instituted. Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which can lead to falls. Signs and symptoms associated with more severe and/or acute cases have included hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death. 5.10 Interstitial Lung Disease and Eosinophilic Pneumonia Interstitial lung disease and eosinophilic pneumonia associated with venlafaxine (the parent drug of PRISTIQ) therapy have been rarely reported. The possibility of these adverse events should be considered in patients treated with PRISTIQ who present with progressive dyspnea, cough, or chest discomfort. Such patients should undergo a prompt medical evaluation, and discontinuation of PRISTIQ should be considered.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label. Hypersensitivity [see Contraindications (4)] Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Adolescents and Young Adults [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Serotonin Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Elevated Blood Pressure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Abnormal Bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Angle Closure Glaucoma [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] Activation of Mania/Hypomania [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] Discontinuation Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] Seizure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] Hyponatremia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)] Interstitial Lung Disease and Eosinophilic Pneumonia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)] Most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥5% and twice the rate of placebo in the 50 or 100 mg dose groups) were: nausea, dizziness, insomnia, hyperhidrosis, constipation, somnolence, decreased appetite, anxiety, and specific male sexual function disorders (6.1). To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., a subsidiary of Pfizer Inc., at 1-800-438-1985 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch 6.1 Clinical Studies Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Patient exposure PRISTIQ was evaluated for safety in 8,394 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder who participated in multiple-dose pre-marketing studies, representing 2,784 patient-years of exposure. Of the total 8,394 patients exposed to at least one dose of PRISTIQ; 2,116 were exposed to PRISTIQ for 6 months, representing 1,658 patient-years of exposure, and 421 were exposed for one year, representing 416 patient-years of exposure. Adverse reactions reported as reasons for discontinuation of treatment In the pre-marketing pooled 8-week placebo-controlled studies in patients with MDD, 1,834 patients were exposed to PRISTIQ (50 to 400 mg). Of the 1,834 patients, 12% discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction, compared with 3% of the 1,116 placebo-treated patients. At the recommended dose of 50 mg, the discontinuation rate due to an adverse reaction for PRISTIQ (4.1%) was similar to the rate for placebo (3.8%). For the 100 mg dose of PRISTIQ the discontinuation rate due to an adverse reaction was 8.7%. The most common adverse reactions leading to discontinuation in at least 2% and at a rate greater than placebo of the PRISTIQ treated patients in the short-term studies, up to 8 weeks, were: nausea (4%); dizziness, headache and vomiting (2% each). In a longer-term study, up to 9 months, the most common was vomiting (2%). Common adverse reactions in placebo-controlled MDD studies The most commonly observed adverse reactions in PRISTIQ treated MDD patients in pre-marketing pooled 8-week, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose studies (incidence ≥ 5% and at least twice the rate of placebo in the 50 or 100 mg dose groups) were: nausea, dizziness, insomnia, hyperhidrosis, constipation, somnolence, decreased appetite, anxiety, and specific male sexual function disorders. Table 2 shows the incidence of common adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 2% of PRISTIQ treated MDD patients and twice the rate of placebo at any dose in the pre-marketing pooled 8-week, placebo-controlled, fixed dose clinical studies Table 2: Common Adverse Reactions (≥ 2% in any Fixed-Dose Group and Twice the Rate of Placebo) in Pre-marketing Pooled MDD 8-Week Placebo-Controlled Studies Percentage of Patients Reporting Reaction PRISTIQ System Organ Class Preferred Term Placebo (n=636) 50 mg (n=317) 100 mg (n=424) 200 mg (n=307) 400 mg (n=317) Cardiac disorders Blood pressure increased 1 1 1 2 2 Gastrointestinal disorders Nausea 10 22 26 36 41 Dry mouth 9 11 17 21 25 Constipation 4 9 9 10 14 Vomiting 3 3 4 6 9 General disorders and administration site conditions Fatigue 4 7 7 10 11 Chills 1 1 <1 3 4 Feeling jittery 1 1 2 3 3 Metabolism and nutrition disorders Decreased appetite 2 5 8 10 10 Nervous system disorders Dizziness 5 13 10 15 16 Somnolence 4 4 9 12 12 Tremor 2 2 3 9 9 Disturbance in attention <1 <1 1 2 1 Psychiatric disorders Insomnia 6 9 12 14 15 Anxiety 2 3 5 4 4 Nervousness 1 <1 1 2 2 Abnormal dreams 1 2 3 2 4 Renal and urinary disorders Urinary hesitation 0 <1 1 2 2 Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders Yawning <1 1 1 4 3 Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Hyperhidrosis 4 10 11 18 21 Special Senses Vision blurred 1 3 4 4 4 Mydriasis <1 2 2 6 6 Vertigo 1 2 1 5 3 Tinnitus 1 2 1 1 2 Dysgeusia 1 1 1 1 2 Vascular disorders Hot flush <1 1 1 2 2 Sexual function adverse reactions Table 3 shows the incidence of sexual function adverse reactions that occurred in ≥ 2% of PRISTIQ treated MDD patients in any fixed-dose group (pre-marketing pooled 8-week, placebo-controlled, fixed -dose, clinical studies). Table 3: Sexual Function Adverse Reactions (≥ 2% in Men or Women in any PRISTIQ Group) During the On-Therapy Period PRISTIQ Placebo (n=239) 50 mg (n=108) 100 mg (n=157) 200 mg (n=131) 400 mg (n=154) Men only Anorgasmia 0 0 3 5 8 Libido decreased 1 4 5 6 3 Orgasm abnormal 0 0 1 2 3 Ejaculation delayed <1 1 5 7 6 Erectile dysfunction 1 3 6 8 11 Ejaculation disorder 0 0 1 2 5 Ejaculation failure 0 1 0 2 2 Sexual dysfunction 0 1 0 0 2 PRISTIQ Placebo (n=397) 50 mg (n=209) 100 mg (n=267) 200 mg (n=176) 400 mg (n=163) Women only Anorgasmia 0 1 1 0 3 Other adverse reactions observed in premarketing and postmarketing clinical studies Other infrequent adverse reactions, not described elsewhere in the label, occurring at an incidence of < 2% in MDD patients treated with PRISTIQ were: Cardiac disorders – Tachycardia. General disorders and administration site conditions – Asthenia. Investigations – Weight increased, liver function test abnormal, blood prolactin increased. Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders – Musculoskeletal stiffness. Nervous system disorders –Syncope, convulsion, dystonia. Psychiatric disorders – Depersonalization, bruxism. Renal and urinary disorders – Urinary retention. Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders – Rash, alopecia, photosensitivity reaction, angioedema. In clinical studies, there were uncommon reports of ischemic cardiac adverse reactions, including myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, and coronary occlusion requiring revascularization; these patients had multiple underlying cardiac risk factors. More patients experienced these events during PRISTIQ treatment as compared to placebo. Laboratory, ECG and vital sign changes observed in MDD clinical studies The following changes were observed in pre-marketing placebo-controlled, short-term MDD studies with PRISTIQ. Lipids Elevations in fasting serum total cholesterol, LDL (low density lipoproteins) cholesterol, and triglycerides occurred in the controlled studies. Some of these abnormalities were considered potentially clinically significant. The percentage of patients who exceeded a predetermined threshold value is shown in Table 4. Table 4: Incidence (%) of Patients With Lipid Abnormalities of Potential Clinical Significance* PRISTIQ Placebo 50 mg 100 mg 200 mg 400 mg Total Cholesterol *(Increase of ≥ 50 mg/dl and an absolute value of ≥ 261 mg/dl) 2 3 4 4 10 LDL Cholesterol *(Increase ≥ 50 mg/dl and an absolute value of ≥ 190 mg/dl) 0 1 0 1 2 Triglycerides, fasting *(Fasting: ≥ 327 mg/dl) 3 2 1 4 6 Proteinuria Proteinuria, greater than or equal to trace, was observed in the pre-marketing fixed-dose controlled studies (see Table 5). This proteinuria was not associated with increases in BUN or creatinine and was generally transient. Table 5: Incidence (%) of Patients with Proteinuria in the Fixed-dose Clinical Studies PRISTIQ Placebo 50 mg 100 mg 200 mg 400 mg Proteinuria 4 6 8 5 7 Vital sign changes Table 6 summarizes the changes that were observed in placebo-controlled, short-term, pre-marketing studies with PRISTIQ in patients with MDD (doses 50 to 400 mg). Table 6: Mean Changes in Vital Signs at Final on Therapy for All Short-term, Fixed-dose Controlled Studies PRISTIQ Placebo 50 mg 100 mg 200 mg 400 mg Blood pressure Supine systolic bp (mm Hg) -1.4 1.2 2.0 2.5 2.1 Supine diastolic bp (mm Hg) -0.6 0.7 0.8 1.8 2.3 Pulse rate Supine pulse (bpm) -0.3 1.3 1.3 0.9 4.1 Weight (kg) 0.0 -0.4 -0.6 -0.9 -1.1 Treatment with PRISTIQ at all doses from 50 mg per day to 400 mg per day in controlled studies was associated with sustained hypertension, defined as treatment-emergent supine diastolic blood pressure (SDBP) ≥90 mm Hg and ≥10 mm Hg above baseline for 3 consecutive on-therapy visits (see Table 7). Analyses of patients in PRISTIQ pre-marketing short-term controlled studies who met criteria for sustained hypertension revealed a consistent increase in the proportion of patients who developed sustained hypertension. This was seen at all doses with a suggestion of a higher rate at 400 mg per day. Table 7: Proportion of Patients with Sustained Elevation of Supine Diastolic Blood Pressure Treatment Group Proportion of Patients with Sustained Hypertension Placebo 0.5% PRISTIQ 50 mg per day 1.3% PRISTIQ 100 mg per day 0.7% PRISTIQ 200 mg per day 1.1% PRISTIQ 400 mg per day 2.3% Orthostatic hypotension In the pre-marketing short-term, placebo-controlled clinical studies with doses of 50 to 400 mg, systolic orthostatic hypotension (decrease ≥30 mm Hg from supine to standing position) occurred more frequently in patients ≥65 years of age receiving PRISTIQ (8%, 7/87) versus placebo (2.5%, 1/40), compared to patients <65 years of age receiving PRISTIQ (0.9%, 18/1,937) versus placebo (0.7%, 8/1,218). 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reaction has been identified during post-approval use of PRISTIQ. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders – Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS 7.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) Do not use MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with desvenlafaxine or within 7 days of stopping treatment with desvenlafaxine. Do not use desvenlafaxine within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders. In addition, do not start desvenlafaxine in a patient who is being treated with linezolid or intravenous methylene blue [see Dosage and Administration (2.6 ), Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. 7.2 Serotonergic Drugs Based on the mechanism of action of desvenlafaxine and the potential for serotonin syndrome, caution is advised when desvenlafaxine is co-administered with other drugs that may affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter systems [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. 7.3 Drugs that Interfere with Hemostasis (e.g., NSAIDs, Aspirin, and Warfarin) Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies of case-control and cohort design that have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. These studies have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may potentiate this risk of bleeding. Altered anticoagulant effects, including increased bleeding, have been reported when SSRIs and SNRIs are co-administered with warfarin. Patients receiving warfarin therapy should be carefully monitored when PRISTIQ is initiated or discontinued [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. 7.4 Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Desvenlafaxine Based on in vitro data, no dose adjustment is required for PRISTIQ when used concomitantly with inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2D6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2E1, and the P-glycoprotein transporter. Clinical studies have demonstrated no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between PRISTIQ and strong CYP 3A4 inhibitors (Figure 1). Figure 1 7.5 Potential for Desvenlafaxine to Affect Other Drugs Clinical studies have shown that desvenlafaxine does not have a clinically relevant effect on CYP2D6 metabolism at the dose of 100 mg daily (Figure 2). Substrates primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 (e.g., desipramine , atomoxetine, dextromethorphan, metoprolol, nebivolol, perphenazine, tolterodine) should be dosed at the original level when co-administered with PRISTIQ 100 mg or lower or when PRISTIQ is discontinued. Reduce the dose of these substrates by up to one-half if co-administered with 400 mg of PRISTIQ. No additional dose adjustment is required for concomitant use of substrates of CYP3A4, 1A2, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, and 2C19 isozymes, and P-glycoprotein transporter. Clinical studies have demonstrated no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between PRISTIQ and CYP3A4 substrates (Figure 2). Clinical studies have shown that desvenlafaxine (100 mg daily) does not have a clinically relevant effect on tamoxifen and aripiprazole, compounds that are metabolized by a combination of both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes (Figure 2). In vitro studies showed minimal inhibitory effect of desvenlafaxine on the CYP2D6 isoenzyme. In vitro, desvenlafaxine does not inhibit or induce the CYP3A4 isozyme. In vitro, desvenlafaxine does not inhibit CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, and 2C19, isozymes, and P-glycoprotein transporter and would not be expected to affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates of these CYP isozymes and transporter. Figure 2 7.6 Other Drugs Containing Desvenlafaxine or Venlafaxine Avoid use of PRISTIQ with other desvenlafaxine-containing products or venlafaxine products. The concomitant use of PRISTIQ with other desvenlafaxine-containing products or venlafaxine will increase desvenlafaxine blood levels and increase dose-related adverse reactions [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. 7.7 Ethanol A clinical study has shown that PRISTIQ does not increase the impairment of mental and motor skills caused by ethanol. However, as with all CNS-active drugs, patients should be advised to avoid alcohol consumption while taking PRISTIQ. 7.8 Drug-Laboratory Test Interactions False-positive urine immunoassay screening tests for phencyclidine (PCP) and amphetamine have been reported in patients taking desvenlafaxine. This is due to lack of specificity of the screening tests. False positive test results may be expected for several days following discontinuation of desvenlafaxine therapy. Confirmatory tests, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, will distinguish desvenlafaxine from PCP and amphetamine.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: Based on animal data, may cause fetal harm (8.1). Nursing Mothers: Discontinue drug or nursing taking into consideration importance of drug to mother (8.3). Geriatric Use: There is an increased incidence of orthostatic hypotension in desvenlafaxine treated patients ≥ 65 years (6.1 and 8.5). 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C Risk summary There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of PRISTIQ in pregnant women. In reproductive developmental studies in rats and rabbits with desvenlafaxine succinate, evidence of teratogenicity was not observed at doses up to 30 times a human dose of 100 mg per day (on a mg/m2 basis) in rats, and up to 15 times a human dose of 100 mg per day (on a mg/m2 basis) in rabbits. An increase in rat pup deaths was seen during the first 4 days of lactation when dosing occurred during gestation and lactation, at doses greater than 10 times a human dose of 100 mg per day (on a mg/m2 basis). PRISTIQ should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefits justify the potential risks to the fetus. Clinical considerations A prospective longitudinal study of 201 women with history of major depression who were euthymic at the beginning of pregnancy, showed women who discontinued antidepressant medication during pregnancy were more likely to experience a relapse of major depression than women who continued antidepressant medication. Human data Neonates exposed to SNRIs (Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors), or SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors), late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding. Such complications can arise immediately upon delivery. Reported clinical findings have included respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability, and constant crying. These features are consistent with either a direct toxic effect of SSRIs and SNRIs or, possibly, a drug discontinuation syndrome. It should be noted that, in some cases, the clinical picture is consistent with serotonin syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Animal data When desvenlafaxine succinate was administered orally to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day and 75 mg/kg/day, respectively, no teratogenic effects were observed. These doses are 30 times a human dose of 100 mg per day (on a mg/m2 basis) in rats and 15 times a human dose of 100 mg per day (on a mg/m2 basis) in rabbits. However, fetal weights were decreased and skeletal ossification was delayed in rats in association with maternal toxicity at the highest dose, with a no-effect dose 10 times a human dose of 100 mg per day (on a mg/m2 basis). When desvenlafaxine succinate was administered orally to pregnant rats throughout gestation and lactation, there was a decrease in pup weights and an increase in pup deaths during the first four days of lactation at the highest dose of 300 mg/kg/day. The cause of these deaths is not known. The no-effect dose for rat pup mortality was 10 times a human dose of 100 mg per day (on a mg/m2 basis). Post-weaning growth and reproductive performance of the progeny were not affected by maternal treatment with desvenlafaxine succinate at a dose 30 times a human dose of 100 mg per day (on a mg/m2 basis). 8.3 Nursing Mothers Desvenlafaxine (O-desmethylvenlafaxine) is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from PRISTIQ, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Anyone considering the use of PRISTIQ in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the 4,158 patients in pre-marketing clinical studies with PRISTIQ, 6% were 65 years of age or older. No overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed between these patients and younger patients; however, in the short-term placebo-controlled studies, there was a higher incidence of systolic orthostatic hypotension in patients ≥65 years of age compared to patients <65 years of age treated with PRISTIQ [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. For elderly patients, possible reduced renal clearance of PRISTIQ should be considered when determining dose [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. SSRIs and SNRIs, including PRISTIQ, have been associated with cases of clinically significant hyponatremia in elderly patients, who may be at greater risk for this adverse event [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]. 8.6 Other Patient Factors The effect of intrinsic patient factors on the pharmacokinetics of PRISTIQ is presented in Figure 3. Figure 3 Renal Impairment: In subjects with renal impairment the clearance of PRISTIQ was decreased. In subjects with severe renal impairment (24-hr CrCl <30 mL/min, Cockcroft-Gault) and end-stage renal disease, elimination half-lives were significantly prolonged, increasing exposures to PRISTIQ; therefore, dosage adjustment is recommended in these patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Hepatic Impairment: The mean terminal half-life (t1/2) changed from approximately 10 hours in healthy subjects and subjects with mild hepatic impairment to 13 and 14 hours in moderate and severe hepatic impairment, respectively. The recommended dose in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment is 50 mg per day. Dose escalation above 100 mg per day is not recommended [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].