|Dosage and Administration, Recommended Dosing Schedule (2.1) ||12/2014 |
|Contraindications (4) ||12/2014 |
|Warnings and Precautions, Acute Interstitial Nephritis (5.3) ||12/2014 |
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE PROTONIX For Delayed-Release Oral Suspension and PROTONIX Delayed-Release Tablets are indicated for: PROTONIX is a proton pump inhibitor indicated for the following: Short-Term Treatment of Erosive Esophagitis Associated with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) (1.1) Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis (1.2) Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions Including Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (1.3) 1.1 Short-Term Treatment of Erosive Esophagitis Associated With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) PROTONIX is indicated in adults and pediatric patients five years of age and older for the short-term treatment (up to 8 weeks) in the healing and symptomatic relief of erosive esophagitis. For those adult patients who have not healed after 8 weeks of treatment, an additional 8-week course of PROTONIX may be considered. Safety of treatment beyond 8 weeks in pediatric patients has not been established. 1.2 Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis PROTONIX is indicated for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis and reduction in relapse rates of daytime and nighttime heartburn symptoms in adult patients with GERD. Controlled studies did not extend beyond 12 months. 1.3 Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions Including Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome PROTONIX is indicated for the long-term treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions, including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
|Indication ||Dose ||Frequency |
| Short-Term Treatment of Erosive Esophagitis Associated With GERD (2.1) |
| Adults ||40 mg ||Once Daily for up to 8 wks |
| Children (5 years and older) || || |
| ≥ 15 kg to < 40 kg ||20 mg ||Once Daily for up to 8 wks |
| ≥ 40 kg ||40 mg || |
| Maintenance of Healing of Erosive Esophagitis (2.1) |
| Adults ||40 mg ||Once DailyControlled studies did not extend beyond 12 months |
| Pathological Hypersecretory Conditions Including Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (2.1) |
| Adults ||40 mg ||Twice Daily |
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Delayed-Release Tablets: 40 mg, yellow oval biconvex tablets imprinted with PROTONIX (brown ink) on one side 20 mg, yellow oval biconvex tablets imprinted with P20 (brown ink) on one side For Delayed-Release Oral Suspension: 40 mg, pale yellowish to dark brownish, enteric-coated granules in a unit dose packet Delayed-Release Tablets, 20 mg and 40 mg (3) For Delayed-Release Oral Suspension, 40 mg (3)
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS PROTONIX is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any component of the formulation or any substituted benzimidazole. Hypersensitivity reactions may include anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, acute interstitial nephritis, and urticaria [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. Known hypersensitivity to any component of the formulation or to substituted benzimidazoles (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Symptomatic response does not preclude presence of gastric malignancy (5.1) Atrophic gastritis has been noted with long-term therapy (5.2) Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs. (5.3) Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) Deficiency: Daily long-term use (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption or a deficiency of cyanocobalamin. (5.4) PPI therapy may be associated with increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea. (5.5) Bone Fracture: Long-term and multiple daily dose PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist or spine. (5.6) Hypomagnesemia has been reported rarely with prolonged treatment with PPIs (5.7) 5.1 Concurrent Gastric Malignancy Symptomatic response to therapy with PROTONIX does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. 5.2 Atrophic Gastritis Atrophic gastritis has been noted occasionally in gastric corpus biopsies from patients treated long-term with PROTONIX, particularly in patients who were H. pylori positive. 5.3 Acute Interstitial Nephritis Acute interstitial nephritis has been observed in patients taking PPIs including PROTONIX. Acute interstitial nephritis may occur at any point during PPI therapy and is generally attributed to an idiopathic hypersensitivity reaction. Discontinue PROTONIX if acute interstitial nephritis develops [see Contraindications (4)]. 5.4 Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency Generally, daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) caused by hypo- or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed. 5.5 Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea Published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy like PROTONIX may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. 5.6 Bone Fracture Several published observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist, or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. 5.7 Hypomagnesemia Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI. For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions 6.2)]. 5.8 Tumorigenicity Due to the chronic nature of GERD, there may be a potential for prolonged administration of PROTONIX. In long-term rodent studies, pantoprazole was carcinogenic and caused rare types of gastrointestinal tumors. The relevance of these findings to tumor development in humans is unknown [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. 5.9 Interference with Urine Screen for THC See Drug Interactions (7.5) . 5.10 Concomitant use of PROTONIX with Methotrexate Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration, a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see Drug Interactions (7.6)].
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The adverse reaction profiles for PROTONIX (pantoprazole sodium) For Delayed-Release Oral Suspension and PROTONIX (pantoprazole sodium) Delayed-Release Tablets are similar. The most frequently occurring adverse reactions are as follows: For adult use (>2%) are headache, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, flatulence, dizziness, and arthralgia. (6) For pediatric use (>4%) are URI, headache, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, rash, and abdominal pain. (6) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Pfizer Inc at 1-800-438-1985 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trial Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Adults Safety in nine randomized comparative US clinical trials in patients with GERD included 1,473 patients on oral PROTONIX (20 mg or 40 mg), 299 patients on an H2-receptor antagonist, 46 patients on another proton pump inhibitor, and 82 patients on placebo. The most frequently occurring adverse reactions are listed in Table 3. Table 3: Adverse Reactions Reported in Clinical Trials of Adult Patients with GERD at a Frequency of > 2% PROTONIX (n=1473) % Comparators (n=345) % Placebo (n=82) % Headache 12.2 12.8 8.5 Diarrhea 8.8 9.6 4.9 Nausea 7.0 5.2 9.8 Abdominal pain 6.2 4.1 6.1 Vomiting 4.3 3.5 2.4 Flatulence 3.9 2.9 3.7 Dizziness 3.0 2.9 1.2 Arthralgia 2.8 1.4 1.2 Additional adverse reactions that were reported for PROTONIX in clinical trials with a frequency of ≤ 2% are listed below by body system: Body as a Whole: allergic reaction, pyrexia, photosensitivity reaction, facial edema Gastrointestinal: constipation, dry mouth, hepatitis Hematologic: leukopenia, thrombocytopenia Metabolic/Nutritional: elevated CK (creatine kinase), generalized edema, elevated triglycerides, liver enzymes elevated Musculoskeletal: myalgia Nervous: depression, vertigo Skin and Appendages: urticaria, rash, pruritus Special Senses: blurred vision Pediatric Patients Safety of PROTONIX in the treatment of Erosive Esophagitis (EE) associated with GERD was evaluated in pediatric patients ages 1 year through 16 years in three clinical trials. Safety trials involved pediatric patients with EE; however, as EE is uncommon in the pediatric population, 249 pediatric patients with endoscopically-proven or symptomatic GERD were also evaluated. All adult adverse reactions to PROTONIX are considered relevant to pediatric patients. In patients ages 1 year through 16 years, the most commonly reported (> 4%) adverse reactions include: URI, headache, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, rash, and abdominal pain. For safety information in patients less than 1 year of age see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) . Additional adverse reactions that were reported for PROTONIX in pediatric patients in clinical trials with a frequency of ≤ 4% are listed below by body system: Body as a Whole: allergic reaction, facial edema Gastrointestinal: constipation, flatulence, nausea Metabolic/Nutritional: elevated triglycerides, elevated liver enzymes, elevated CK (creatine kinase) Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, myalgia Nervous: dizziness, vertigo Skin and Appendages: urticaria The following adverse reactions seen in adults in clinical trials were not reported in pediatric patients in clinical trials, but are considered relevant to pediatric patients: photosensitivity reaction, dry mouth, hepatitis, thrombocytopenia, generalized edema, depression, pruritus, leukopenia, and blurred vision. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome In clinical studies of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, adverse reactions reported in 35 patients taking PROTONIX 80 mg/day to 240 mg/day for up to 2 years were similar to those reported in adult patients with GERD. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of PROTONIX. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These adverse reactions are listed below by body system: General Disorders and Administration Conditions: asthenia, fatigue, malaise Hematologic: pancytopenia, agranulocytosis Hepatobiliary Disorders: hepatocellular damage leading to jaundice and hepatic failure Immune System Disorders: anaphylaxis (including anaphylactic shock) Infections and Infestations: Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea Investigations: weight changes Metabolism and Nutritional Disorders: hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia Musculoskeletal Disorders: rhabdomyolysis, bone fracture Nervous: ageusia, dysgeusia Psychiatric Disorders: hallucination, confusion, insomnia, somnolence Renal and Urinary Disorders: interstitial nephritis Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: severe dermatologic reactions (some fatal), including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN, some fatal), and angioedema (Quincke's edema)
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Do not co-administer with atazanavir or nelfinavir (7.1) Concomitant warfarin use may require monitoring (7.2) May interfere with the absorption of drugs where gastric pH is important for bioavailability (e.g. ketoconazole, ampicillin esters, atazanavir, iron salts, erlotinib and mycophenolate mofetil) (7.4) May produce false-positive urine screen for THC (7.5) Methotrexate: PROTONIX may increase serum level of methotrexate (7.6) 7.1 Interference with Antiretroviral Therapy Concomitant use of atazanavir or nelfinavir with proton pump inhibitors is not recommended. Co-administration of atazanavir or nelfinavir with proton pump inhibitors is expected to substantially decrease atazanavir or nelfinavir plasma concentrations and may result in a loss of therapeutic effect and development of drug resistance. 7.2 Coumarin Anticoagulants There have been postmarketing reports of increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors, including PROTONIX, and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Patients treated with proton pump inhibitors and warfarin concomitantly should be monitored for increases in INR and prothrombin time. 7.3 Clopidogrel Concomitant administration of pantoprazole and clopidogrel in healthy subjects had no clinically important effect on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel or clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. No dose adjustment of clopidogrel is necessary when administered with an approved dose of PROTONIX. 7.4 Drugs for Which Gastric pH Can Affect Bioavailability Due to its effects on gastric acid secretion, pantoprazole can reduce the absorption of drugs where gastric pH is an important determinant of their bioavailability. Like with other drugs that decrease the intragastric acidity, the absorption of drugs such as ketoconazole, ampicillin esters, atazanavir, iron salts, erlotinib, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) can decrease. Co-administration of pantoprazole in healthy subjects and in transplant patients receiving MMF has been reported to reduce the exposure to the active metabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA), possibly due to a decrease in MMF solubility at an increased gastric pH. The clinical relevance of reduced MPA exposure on organ rejection has not been established in transplant patients receiving PROTONIX and MMF. Use PROTONIX with caution in transplant patients receiving MMF [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 7.5 False Positive Urine Tests for THC There have been reports of false positive urine screening tests for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors. An alternative confirmatory method should be considered to verify positive results. 7.6 Methotrexate Case reports, published population pharmacokinetic studies, and retrospective analyses suggest that concomitant administration of PPIs and methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate. However, no formal drug interaction studies of Methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects Pregnancy Category B Reproduction studies have been performed in rats at oral doses up to 88 times the recommended human dose and in rabbits at oral doses up to 16 times the recommended human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to pantoprazole. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)]. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Pantoprazole and its metabolites are excreted in the milk of rats. Pantoprazole excretion in human milk has been detected in a study of a single nursing mother after a single 40 mg oral dose. The clinical relevance of this finding is not known. Many drugs which are excreted in human milk have a potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants. Based on the potential for tumorigenicity shown for pantoprazole in rodent carcinogenicity studies, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the benefit of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of PROTONIX for short-term treatment (up to eight weeks) of erosive esophagitis (EE) associated with GERD have been established in pediatric patients 1 year through 16 years of age. Effectiveness for EE has not been demonstrated in patients less than 1 year of age. In addition, for patients less than 5 years of age, there is no appropriate dosage strength in an age-appropriate formulation available. Therefore, PROTONIX is indicated for the short-term treatment of EE associated with GERD for patients 5 years and older. The safety and effectiveness of PROTONIX for pediatric uses other than EE have not been established. 1 year through 16 years of age Use of PROTONIX in pediatric patients 1 year through 16 years of age for short-term treatment (up to eight weeks) of EE associated with GERD is supported by: a) extrapolation of results from adequate and well-controlled studies that supported the approval of PROTONIX for treatment of EE associated with GERD in adults, and b) safety, effectiveness, and pharmacokinetic studies performed in pediatric patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Safety of PROTONIX in the treatment of EE associated with GERD in pediatric patients 1 through 16 years of age was evaluated in three multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-treatment studies, involving 249 pediatric patients, including 8 with EE (4 patients ages 1 year to 5 years and 4 patients 5 years to 11 years). The children ages 1 year to 5 years with endoscopically diagnosed EE (defined as an endoscopic Hetzel-Dent score ≥ 2) were treated once daily for 8 weeks with one of two dose levels of PROTONIX (approximating 0.6 mg/kg or 1.2 mg/kg). All 4 of these patients with EE were healed (Hetzel-Dent score of 0 or 1) at 8 weeks. Because EE is uncommon in the pediatric population, predominantly pediatric patients with endoscopically-proven or symptomatic GERD were also included in these studies. Patients were treated with a range of doses of PROTONIX once daily for 8 weeks. For safety findings see Adverse Reactions (6.1) . Because these pediatric trials had no placebo, active comparator, or evidence of a dose response, the trials were inconclusive regarding the clinical benefit of PROTONIX for symptomatic GERD in the pediatric population. The effectiveness of PROTONIX for treating symptomatic GERD in pediatric patients has not been established. Although the data from the clinical trials support use of PROTONIX for the short-term treatment of EE associated with GERD in pediatric patients 1 year through 5 years, there is no commercially available dosage formulation appropriate for patients less than 5 years of age [see Dosage and Administration (2)]. In a population pharmacokinetic analysis, clearance values in the children 1 to 5 years old with endoscopically proven GERD had a median value of 2.4 L/h. Following a 1.2 mg/kg equivalent dose (15 mg for ≤ 12.5 kg and 20 mg for > 12.5 to < 25 kg), the plasma concentrations of pantoprazole were highly variable and the median time to peak plasma concentration was 3 to 6 hours. The estimated AUC for patients 1 to 5 years old was 37% higher than for adults receiving a single 40 mg tablet, with a geometric mean AUC value of 6.8 µg∙hr/mL. Neonates to less than one year of age PROTONIX was not found to be effective in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, treatment-withdrawal study of 129 pediatric patients 1 through 11 months of age. Patients were enrolled if they had symptomatic GERD based on medical history and had not responded to non-pharmacologic interventions for GERD for two weeks. Patients received PROTONIX daily for four weeks in an open-label phase, then patients were randomized in equal proportion to receive PROTONIX treatment or placebo for the subsequent four weeks in a double-blind manner. Efficacy was assessed by observing the time from randomization to study discontinuation due to symptom worsening during the four-week treatment-withdrawal phase. There was no statistically significant difference between PROTONIX and placebo in the rate of discontinuation. In this trial, the adverse reactions that were reported more commonly (difference of ≥ 4%) in the treated population compared to the placebo population were elevated CK, otitis media, rhinitis, and laryngitis. In a population pharmacokinetic analysis, the systemic exposure was higher in patients less than 1 year of age with GERD compared to adults who received a single 40 mg dose (geometric mean AUC was 103% higher in preterm infants and neonates receiving single dose of 2.5 mg of PROTONIX, and 23% higher in infants 1 through 11 months of age receiving a single dose of approximately 1.2 mg/kg). In these patients, the apparent clearance (CL/F) increased with age (median clearance: 0.6 L/hr, range: 0.03 to 3.2 L/hr). These doses resulted in pharmacodynamic effects on gastric but not esophageal pH. Following once daily dosing of 2.5 mg of PROTONIX in preterm infants and neonates, there was an increase in the mean gastric pH (from 4.3 at baseline to 5.2 at steady-state) and in the mean % time that gastric pH was > 4 (from 60% at baseline to 80% at steady-state). Following once daily dosing of approximately 1.2 mg/kg of PROTONIX in infants 1 through 11 months of age, there was an increase in the mean gastric pH (from 3.1 at baseline to 4.2 at steady-state) and in the mean % time that gastric pH was > 4 (from 32% at baseline to 60% at steady-state). However, no significant changes were observed in mean intraesophageal pH or % time that esophageal pH was < 4 in either age group. Because PROTONIX was not shown to be effective in the randomized, placebo-controlled study in this age group, the use of PROTONIX for treatment of symptomatic GERD in infants less than 1 year of age is not indicated. 8.5 Geriatric Use In short-term US clinical trials, erosive esophagitis healing rates in the 107 elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) treated with PROTONIX were similar to those found in patients under the age of 65. The incidence rates of adverse reactions and laboratory abnormalities in patients aged 65 years and older were similar to those associated with patients younger than 65 years of age. 8.6 Gender Erosive esophagitis healing rates in the 221 women treated with PROTONIX Delayed-Release Tablets in US clinical trials were similar to those found in men. In the 122 women treated long-term with PROTONIX 40 mg or 20 mg, healing was maintained at a rate similar to that in men. The incidence rates of adverse reactions were also similar for men and women. 8.7 Patients with Hepatic Impairment Doses higher than 40 mg/day have not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].