|CONTRAINDICATIONS (4) ||4/2015 |
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE REVATIO is indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (WHO Group I) in adults to improve exercise ability and delay clinical worsening. The delay in clinical worsening was demonstrated when REVATIO was added to background epoprostenol therapy [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Studies establishing effectiveness were short-term (12 to 16 weeks), and included predominately patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class II–III symptoms and idiopathic etiology (71%) or associated with connective tissue disease (CTD) (25%). REVATIO is a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (WHO Group I) in adults to improve exercise ability and delay clinical worsening. Studies establishing effectiveness were short-term (12 to 16 weeks), and included predominately patients with NYHA Functional Class II–III symptoms. Etiologies were idiopathic (71%) or associated with connective tissue disease (25%). (1) Limitation of Use: Adding sildenafil to bosentan therapy does not result in any beneficial effect on exercise capacity. (1, 14) Limitation of Use : Adding sildenafil to bosentan therapy does not result in any beneficial effect on exercise capacity [see Clinical Studies (14)].
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Tablets: 20 mg (3) Injection: 10 mg /12.5 mL in a single use vial (3) For Oral Suspension: 10 mg/mL (when reconstituted) (3) REVATIO Tablets White, film-coated, round tablets engraved with "RVT20" containing sildenafil citrate equivalent to 20 mg of sildenafil. REVATIO Injection Single use vial containing 10 mg/12.5 mL of sildenafil. REVATIO for Oral Suspension White to off-white powders containing 1.57 g of sildenafil citrate (equivalent to 1.12 g of sildenafil) in a bottle intended for constitution. Following constitution with 90 mL of water, the volume of the oral suspension is 112 mL and the oral suspension contains 10 mg/mL sildenafil. A 2 mL oral syringe (with 0.5 mL and 2 mL dose markings) and a press-in bottle adaptor are also provided.
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS REVATIO is contraindicated in patients with: Concomitant use of organic nitrates in any form, either regularly or intermittently, because of the greater risk of hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Concomitant use of riociguat, a guanylate cyclase stimulator. PDE5 inhibitors, including sildenafil, may potentiate the hypotensive effects of riociguat. Known hypersensitivity to sildenafil or any component of the tablet, injection, or oral suspension. Hypersensitivity, including anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactic shock and anaphylactoid reaction, has been reported in association with the use of sildenafil. Use with organic nitrates or riociguat (4) History of hypersensitivity reaction to sildenafil or any component of the tablet, injection, or oral suspension (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Increased mortality with increasing doses in pediatric patients. Not recommended for use in pediatric patients. (5.1) Vasodilation effects may be more common in patients with hypotension or on antihypertensive therapy. (5.2) Use in pulmonary veno-occlusive disease may cause pulmonary edema and is not recommended. (5.3) Hearing or visual impairment: Seek medical attention if sudden decrease or loss of vision or hearing occurs. (5.5, 5.6) Pulmonary hypertension secondary to sickle cell disease: REVATIO may cause serious vaso-occlusive crises. (5.9) 5.1 Mortality with Pediatric Use In a long-term trial in pediatric patients with PAH, an increase in mortality with increasing REVATIO dose was observed. Deaths were first observed after about 1 year and causes of death were typical of patients with PAH. Use of REVATIO, particularly chronic use, is not recommended in children [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. 5.2 Hypotension REVATIO has vasodilatory properties, resulting in mild and transient decreases in blood pressure. Before prescribing REVATIO, carefully consider whether patients with certain underlying conditions could be adversely affected by such vasodilatory effects (e.g., patients on antihypertensive therapy or with resting hypotension [BP less than 90/50], fluid depletion, severe left ventricular outflow obstruction, or autonomic dysfunction). Monitor blood pressure when co-administering blood pressure lowering drugs with REVATIO. 5.3 Worsening Pulmonary Vascular Occlusive Disease Pulmonary vasodilators may significantly worsen the cardiovascular status of patients with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD). Since there are no clinical data on administration of REVATIO to patients with veno-occlusive disease, administration of REVATIO to such patients is not recommended. Should signs of pulmonary edema occur when REVATIO is administered, consider the possibility of associated PVOD. 5.4 Epistaxis The incidence of epistaxis was 13% in patients taking REVATIO with PAH secondary to CTD. This effect was not seen in idiopathic PAH (REVATIO 3%, placebo 2%) patients. The incidence of epistaxis was also higher in REVATIO-treated patients with a concomitant oral vitamin K antagonist (9% versus 2% in those not treated with concomitant vitamin K antagonist). The safety of REVATIO is unknown in patients with bleeding disorders or active peptic ulceration. 5.5 Visual Loss When used to treat erectile dysfunction, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), a cause of decreased vision including permanent loss of vision, has been reported postmarketing in temporal association with the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, including sildenafil. Most, but not all, of these patients had underlying anatomic or vascular risk factors for developing NAION, including but not necessarily limited to: low cup to disc ratio ("crowded disc"), age over 50, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia and smoking. Based on published literature, the annual incidence of NAION is 2.5–11.8 cases per 100,000 males aged ≥ 50 per year in the general population. An observational study evaluated whether recent, episodic use of PDE5 inhibitors (as a class), typical of erectile dysfunction treatment, was associated with acute onset of NAION. The results suggest an approximately 2-fold increase in the risk of NAION within 5 half-lives of PDE5 inhibitor use. It is not possible to determine whether these events are related directly to the use of PDE-5 inhibitors, to the patient's underlying vascular risk factors or anatomical defects, to a combination of these factors, or to other factors. Advise patients to seek immediate medical attention in the event of a sudden loss of vision in one or both eyes while taking PDE-5 inhibitors, including REVATIO. Physicians should also discuss the increased risk of NAION with patients who have already experienced NAION in one eye, including whether such individuals could be adversely affected by use of vasodilators, such as PDE-5 inhibitors. There are no controlled clinical data on the safety or efficacy of REVATIO in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, a minority whom have genetic disorders of retinal phosphodiesterases. Prescribe REVATIO with caution in these patients. 5.6 Hearing Loss Cases of sudden decrease or loss of hearing, which may be accompanied by tinnitus and dizziness, have been reported in temporal association with the use of PDE-5 inhibitors, including REVATIO. In some of the cases, medical conditions and other factors were reported that may have played a role. In many cases, medical follow-up information was limited. It is not possible to determine whether these reported events are related directly to the use of REVATIO, to the patient's underlying risk factors for hearing loss, a combination of these factors, or to other factors. Advise patients to seek prompt medical attention in the event of sudden decrease or loss of hearing while taking PDE-5 inhibitors, including REVATIO. 5.7 Combination with other PDE-5 inhibitors Sildenafil is also marketed as VIAGRA®. The safety and efficacy of combinations of REVATIO with VIAGRA or other PDE-5 inhibitors have not been studied. Inform patients taking REVATIO not to take VIAGRA or other PDE-5 inhibitors. 5.8 Priapism Use REVATIO with caution in patients with anatomical deformation of the penis (e.g., angulation, cavernosal fibrosis, or Peyronie's disease) or in patients who have conditions, which may predispose them to priapism (e.g., sickle cell anemia, multiple myeloma, or leukemia). In the event of an erection that persists longer than 4 hours, the patient should seek immediate medical assistance. If priapism (painful erection greater than 6 hours in duration) is not treated immediately, penile tissue damage and permanent loss of potency could result. 5.9 Vaso-occlusive Crisis in Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Sickle Cell Anemia In a small, prematurely terminated study of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to sickle cell disease, vaso-occlusive crises requiring hospitalization were more commonly reported by patients who received REVATIO than by those randomized to placebo. The effectiveness and safety of REVATIO in the treatment of PAH secondary to sickle cell anemia has not been established.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse events are discussed elsewhere in the labeling: Mortality with pediatric use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.4)] Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Vision loss [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] Hearing loss [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] Priapism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] Vaso-occlusive crisis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)] Most common adverse reactions greater than or equal to 3% and more frequent than placebo were epistaxis, headache, dyspepsia, flushing, insomnia, erythema, dyspnea, and rhinitis. (6.1, 6.2) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Pfizer at 1-800-438-1985 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Safety data of REVATIO in adults were obtained from the 12-week, placebo-controlled clinical study (Study 1) and an open-label extension study in 277 REVATIO-treated patients with PAH, WHO Group I [see Clinical Studies (14)]. The overall frequency of discontinuation in REVATIO-treated patients on 20 mg three times a day was 3% and was the same for the placebo group. In Study 1, the adverse reactions that were reported by at least 3% of REVATIO-treated patients (20 mg three times a day) and were more frequent in REVATIO-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients are shown in Table 1. Adverse reactions were generally transient and mild to moderate in nature. Table 1. Most Common Adverse Reactions in Patients with PAH in Study 1 (More Frequent in REVATIO-Treated Patients than Placebo-Treated Patients and Incidence ≥3% in REVATIO-Treated Patients) Placebo, % (n = 70) REVATIO 20 mg three times a day, % (n = 69) Placebo- Subtracted, % Epistaxis 1 9 8 Headache 39 46 7 Dyspepsia 7 13 6 Flushing 4 10 6 Insomnia 1 7 6 Erythema 1 6 5 Dyspnea exacerbated 3 7 4 Rhinitis 0 4 4 Diarrhea 6 9 3 Myalgia 4 7 3 Pyrexia 3 6 3 Gastritis 0 3 3 Sinusitis 0 3 3 Paresthesia 0 3 3 At doses higher than the recommended 20 mg three times a day, there was a greater incidence of some adverse reactions including flushing, diarrhea, myalgia and visual disturbances. Visual disturbances were identified as mild and transient, and were predominately color-tinge to vision, but also increased sensitivity to light or blurred vision. The incidence of retinal hemorrhage with REVATIO 20 mg three times a day was 1.4% versus 0% placebo and for all REVATIO doses studied was 1.9% versus 0% placebo. The incidence of eye hemorrhage at both 20 mg three times a day and at all doses studied was 1.4% for REVATIO versus 1.4% for placebo. The patients experiencing these reactions had risk factors for hemorrhage including concurrent anticoagulant therapy. In a placebo-controlled fixed dose titration study (Study 2) of REVATIO (starting with recommended dose of 20 mg and increased to 40 mg and then 80 mg all three times a day) as an adjunct to intravenous epoprostenol in patients with PAH, the adverse reactions that were more frequent in the REVATIO + epoprostenol group than in the epoprostenol group (greater than 6% difference) are shown in Table 2 [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Table 2. Adverse Reactions (%) in patients with PAH in Study 2 (incidence in REVATIO + Epoprostenol group at least 6% greater than Epoprostenol group) REVATIO + Epoprostenol (n = 134) Epoprostenol (n = 131) (REVATIO + Epoprostenol) minus Epoprostenol Headache 57 34 23 Edemaincludes peripheral edema 25 13 14 Dyspepsia 16 2 14 Pain in extremity 17 6 11 Diarrhea 25 18 7 Nausea 25 18 7 Nasal congestion 9 2 7 REVATIO Injection REVATIO injection was studied in a 66-patient, placebo-controlled study in patients with PAH at doses targeting plasma concentrations between 10 and 500 ng/mL (up to 8 times the exposure of the recommended dose). Adverse events with REVATIO injection were similar to those seen with oral tablets. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of sildenafil (marketed for both PAH and erectile dysfunction). Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Cardiovascular Events In postmarketing experience with sildenafil at doses indicated for erectile dysfunction, serious cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and vascular events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, ventricular arrhythmia, cerebrovascular hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack, hypertension, pulmonary hemorrhage, and subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhages have been reported in temporal association with the use of the drug. Most, but not all, of these patients had preexisting cardiovascular risk factors. Many of these events were reported to occur during or shortly after sexual activity, and a few were reported to occur shortly after the use of sildenafil without sexual activity. Others were reported to have occurred hours to days after use concurrent with sexual activity. It is not possible to determine whether these events are related directly to sildenafil, to sexual activity, to the patient's underlying cardiovascular disease, or to a combination of these or other factors. Nervous system Seizure, seizure recurrence
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Concomitant alpha-blockers or amlodipine: Note additive blood pressure lowering effects. (7) Use with ritonavir and other potent CYP3A inhibitors: Not recommended. (7, 12.3) Concomitant PDE-5 inhibitors: Avoid use with Viagra or other PDE-5 inhibitors. (5.7) Nitrates Concomitant use of REVATIO with nitrates in any form is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4)]. Ritonavir and other Potent CYP3A Inhibitors Concomitant use of REVATIO with ritonavir and other potent CYP3A inhibitors is not recommended [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Other drugs that reduce blood pressure Alpha blockers. In drug-drug interaction studies, sildenafil (25 mg, 50 mg, or 100 mg) and the alpha-blocker doxazosin (4 mg or 8 mg) were administered simultaneously to patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) stabilized on doxazosin therapy. In these study populations, mean additional reductions of supine systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 7/7 mmHg, 9/5 mmHg, and 8/4 mmHg, respectively, were observed. Mean additional reductions of standing blood pressure of 6/6 mmHg, 11/4 mmHg, and 4/5 mmHg, respectively, were also observed. There were infrequent reports of patients who experienced symptomatic postural hypotension. These reports included dizziness and light-headedness, but not syncope. Amlodipine. When sildenafil 100 mg oral was co-administered with amlodipine, 5 mg or 10 mg oral, to hypertensive patients, the mean additional reduction on supine blood pressure was 8 mmHg systolic and 7 mmHg diastolic. Monitor blood pressure when co-administering blood pressure lowering drugs with REVATIO [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category B There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of sildenafil in pregnant women. No evidence of teratogenicity, embryotoxicity, or fetotoxicity was observed in pregnant rats or rabbits dosed with sildenafil 200 mg/kg/day during organogenesis, a level that is, on a mg/m2 basis, 32- and 68-times, respectively, the recommended human dose (RHD) of 20 mg three times a day. In a rat pre- and postnatal development study, the no-observed-adverse-effect dose was 30 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 5-times the RHD on a mg/m2 basis). 8.2 Labor and Delivery The safety and efficacy of REVATIO during labor and delivery have not been studied. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known if sildenafil or its metabolites are excreted in human breast milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when REVATIO is administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use In a randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-ranging study, 234 patients with PAH, aged 1 to 17 years, body weight greater than or equal to 8 kg, were randomized, on the basis of body weight, to three dose levels of REVATIO, or placebo, for 16 weeks of treatment. Most patients had mild to moderate symptoms at baseline: WHO Functional Class I (32%), II (51%), III (15%), or IV (0.4%). One-third of patients had primary PAH; two-thirds had secondary PAH (systemic-to-pulmonary shunt in 37%; surgical repair in 30%). Sixty-two percent of patients were female. Drug or placebo was administered three times a day. The primary objective of the study was to assess the effect of REVATIO on exercise capacity as measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing in pediatric patients developmentally able to perform the test (n = 115). Administration of REVATIO did not result in a statistically significant improvement in exercise capacity in those patients. No patients died during the 16-week controlled study. After completing the 16-week controlled study, a patient originally randomized to REVATIO remained on his/her dose of REVATIO or, if originally randomized to placebo, was randomized to low-, medium-, or high-dose REVATIO. After all patients completed 16 weeks of follow-up in the controlled study, the blind was broken and doses were adjusted as clinically indicated. Patients treated with sildenafil were followed for a median of 4.6 years (range 2 days to 8.6 years). Mortality during the long-term study, by originally assigned dose, is shown in Figure 6: Figure 6: Kaplan-Meier Plot of Mortality by REVATIO Dose During the study, there were 42 reported deaths, with 37 of these deaths reported prior to a decision to titrate subjects to a lower dosage because of a finding of increased mortality with increasing REVATIO doses. For the survival analysis which included 37 deaths, the hazard ratio for high dose compared to low dose was 3.9, p=0.007. Causes of death were typical of patients with PAH. Use of REVATIO, particularly chronic use, is not recommended in children. Figure 6 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of REVATIO did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.6 Patients with Hepatic Impairment No dose adjustment for mild to moderate impairment is required. Severe impairment has not been studied [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.7 Patients with Renal Impairment No dose adjustment is required (including severe impairment CLcr < 30 mL/min) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].