1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE ROZEREM is indicated for the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulty with sleep onset. The clinical trials performed in support of efficacy were up to 6 months in duration. The final formal assessments of sleep latency were performed after 2 days of treatment during the crossover study (elderly only), at 5 weeks in the 6-week studies (adults and elderly), and at the end of the 6-month study (adults and elderly) [see Clinical Studies (14)]. ROZEREM is indicated for the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulty with sleep onset. (1)
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS ROZEREM is available in an 8 mg strength tablet for oral administration. ROZEREM 8 mg tablets are round, pale orange-yellow, film-coated, with "TAK" and "RAM-8" printed on one side. 8 mg tablets. (3)
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Patients who develop angioedema after treatment with ROZEREM should not be rechallenged with the drug. Patients should not take ROZEREM in conjunction with fluvoxamine (Luvox) [see Drug Interaction (7)]. History of angioedema while taking ROZEREM. (4) Fluvoxamine (strong CYP1A2 inhibitor): Increases AUC for ramelteon and should not be used in combination. (7.1)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Severe anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions: Angioedema and anaphylaxis have been reported. Do not rechallenge if such reactions occur. (5.1) Need to evaluate for co-morbid diagnoses: Reevaluate if insomnia persists after 7 to 10 days of treatment. (5.2) Abnormal thinking, behavioral changes, complex behaviors: May include "sleep-driving" and hallucinations. Immediately evaluate any new onset behavioral changes. (5.3) Depression: Worsening of depression or suicidal thinking may occur. (5.3) CNS effects: Potential impairment of activities requiring complete mental alertness such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle, after ingesting the drug. (5.4) Reproductive effects: Include decreased testosterone and increased prolactin levels. Effect on reproductive axis in developing humans is unknown. (5.5) Patients with severe sleep apnea: Rozerem is not recommended for use in this population. (5.6) 5.1 Severe Anaphylactic and Anaphylactoid Reactions Rare cases of angioedema involving the tongue, glottis or larynx have been reported in patients after taking the first or subsequent doses of ROZEREM. Some patients have had additional symptoms such as dyspnea, throat closing, or nausea and vomiting that suggest anaphylaxis. Some patients have required medical therapy in the emergency department. If angioedema involves the tongue, glottis or larynx, airway obstruction may occur and be fatal. Patients who develop angioedema after treatment with ROZEREM should not be rechallenged with the drug. 5.2 Need to Evaluate for Co-morbid Diagnoses Since sleep disturbances may be the presenting manifestation of a physical and/or psychiatric disorder, symptomatic treatment of insomnia should be initiated only after a careful evaluation of the patient. The failure of insomnia to remit after 7 to 10 days of treatment may indicate the presence of a primary psychiatric and/or medical illness that should be evaluated. Worsening of insomnia, or the emergence of new cognitive or behavioral abnormalities, may be the result of an unrecognized underlying psychiatric or physical disorder and requires further evaluation of the patient. Exacerbation of insomnia and emergence of cognitive and behavioral abnormalities were seen with ROZEREM during the clinical development program. 5.3 Abnormal Thinking and Behavioral Changes A variety of cognitive and behavior changes have been reported to occur in association with the use of hypnotics. In primarily depressed patients, worsening of depression (including suicidal ideation and completed suicides) has been reported in association with the use of hypnotics. Hallucinations, as well as behavioral changes such as bizarre behavior, agitation and mania have been reported with ROZEREM use. Amnesia, anxiety and other neuro-psychiatric symptoms may also occur unpredictably. Complex behaviors such as "sleep-driving" (i.e., driving while not fully awake after ingestion of a hypnotic) and other complex behaviors (e.g., preparing and eating food, making phone calls, or having sex), with amnesia for the event, have been reported in association with hypnotic use. The use of alcohol and other CNS depressants may increase the risk of such behaviors. These events can occur in hypnotic-naive as well as in hypnotic-experienced persons. Complex behaviors have been reported with the use of ROZEREM. Discontinuation of ROZEREM should be strongly considered for patients who report any complex sleep behavior. 5.4 CNS Effects Patients should avoid engaging in hazardous activities that require concentration (such as operating a motor vehicle or heavy machinery) after taking ROZEREM. After taking ROZEREM, patients should confine their activities to those necessary to prepare for bed. Patients should be advised not to consume alcohol in combination with ROZEREM as alcohol and ROZEREM may have additive effects when used in conjunction. 5.5 Reproductive Effects Use in Adolescents and Children ROZEREM has been associated with an effect on reproductive hormones in adults, e.g., decreased testosterone levels and increased prolactin levels. It is not known what effect chronic or even chronic intermittent use of ROZEREM may have on the reproductive axis in developing humans [see Clinical Trials (14.3)]. 5.6 Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness ROZEREM has not been studied in subjects with severe sleep apnea and is not recommended for use in this population [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)]. ROZEREM should not be used by patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)]. 5.7 Laboratory Tests Monitoring No standard monitoring is required. For patients presenting with unexplained amenorrhea, galactorrhea, decreased libido, or problems with fertility, assessment of prolactin levels and testosterone levels should be considered as appropriate. Interference with Laboratory Tests ROZEREM is not known to interfere with commonly used clinical laboratory tests. In addition, in vitro data indicate that ramelteon does not cause false-positive results for benzodiazepines, opiates, barbiturates, cocaine, cannabinoids, or amphetamines in two standard urine drug screening methods in vitro.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections: Severe anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Abnormal thinking, behavior changes, and complex behaviors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] CNS effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Most common adverse reactions (≥3% and more common than with placebo) are: somnolence, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, and exacerbated insomnia. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Takeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc. at 1-877-TAKEDA-7 (1-877-825-3327) or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Adverse Reactions Resulting in Discontinuation of Treatment The data described in this section reflect exposure to ROZEREM in 5373 subjects, including 722 exposed for 6 months or longer, and 448 subjects for one year. Six percent of the 5373 individual subjects exposed to ROZEREM in clinical studies discontinued treatment owing to an adverse event, compared with 2% of the 2279 subjects receiving placebo. The most frequent adverse events leading to discontinuation in subjects receiving ROZEREM were somnolence, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, headache, and insomnia; all of which occurred in 1% of the patients or less. ROZEREM Most Commonly Observed Adverse Events Table 1 displays the incidence of adverse events reported by the 2861 patients with chronic insomnia who participated in placebo-controlled trials of ROZEREM. Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in clinical trials of other drugs, and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates. Table 1. Incidence (% of subjects) of Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events MedDRA Preferred Term Placebo (n=1456) Ramelteon 8 mg (n=1405) Somnolence 2% 3% Fatigue 2% 3% Dizziness 3% 4% Nausea 2% 3% Insomnia exacerbated 2% 3%
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Rifampin (strong CYP enzyme inducer): Decreases exposure to and effects of ramelteon. (7.1) Ketoconazole (strong CYP3A4 inhibitor): Increases AUC for ramelteon; administer with caution. (7.1) Fluconazole (strong CYP2C9 inhibitor): Increases systemic exposure of ramelteon; administer with caution. (7.1) Donepezil increases systemic exposure of ramelteon; patients should be closely monitored when ramelteon is coadministered with donepezil. (7.1) Doxepin increases systemic exposure of ramelteon; patients should be closely monitored when ramelteon is coadministered with doxepin. (7.1) Alcohol: Causes additive psychomotor impairment; should not be used in combination. (7.2) 7.1 Effects of Other Drugs on ROZEREM Fluvoxamine (strong CYP1A2 inhibitor): AUC0-inf for ramelteon increased approximately 190-fold, and the Cmax increased approximately 70-fold upon coadministration of fluvoxamine and ROZEREM, compared to ROZEREM administered alone. ROZEREM should not be used in combination with fluvoxamine [see Contraindications (4), Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)]. Other less strong CYP1A2 inhibitors have not been adequately studied. ROZEREM should be administered with caution to patients taking less strong CYP1A2 inhibitors. Rifampin (strong CYP enzyme inducer): Administration of multiple doses of rifampin resulted in a mean decrease of approximately 80% in total exposure to ramelteon and metabolite M-II. Efficacy may be reduced when ROZEREM is used in combination with strong CYP enzyme inducers such as rifampin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)]. Ketoconazole (strong CYP3A4 inhibitor): The AUC0-inf and Cmax of ramelteon increased by approximately 84% and 36% upon coadministration of ketoconazole with ROZEREM. ROZEREM should be administered with caution in subjects taking strong CYP3A4 inhibitors such as ketoconazole [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)]. Fluconazole (strong CYP2C9 inhibitor): The AUC0-inf and Cmax of ramelteon was increased by approximately 150% when ROZEREM was coadministered with fluconazole. ROZEREM should be administered with caution in subjects taking strong CYP2C9 inhibitors such as fluconazole [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)]. Donepezil: The AUC0-inf and Cmax of ramelteon increased by approximately 100% and 87%, respectively upon coadministration of donepezil with ROZEREM. Patients should be closely monitored when ROZEREM is coadministered with donepezil [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)]. Doxepin: The AUC0-inf and Cmax of ramelteon increased by approximately 66% and 69%, respectively, upon coadministration of doxepin with ROZEREM. Patients should be closely monitored when ROZEREM is coadministered with doxepin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)] . 7.2 Effect of Alcohol on ROZEREM Alcohol by itself impairs performance and can cause sleepiness. Since the intended effect of ROZEREM is to promote sleep, patients should be cautioned not to consume alcohol when using ROZEREM [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)]. Use of the products in combination may have an additive effect. 7.3 Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions ROZEREM is not known to interfere with commonly used clinical laboratory tests. In addition, in vitro data indicate that ramelteon does not cause false-positive results for benzodiazepines, opiates, barbiturates, cocaine, cannabinoids, or amphetamines in two standard urine drug screening methods in vitro.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: Based on animal data may cause fetal harm. Do not use unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk. (8.1) Nursing mothers: Use with caution. (8.3) Pediatric use: Safety and effectiveness not established. (8.4) Geriatric use: No overall differences in safety and efficacy between elderly and younger adult subjects. (8.5) Hepatic impairment: Is not recommended in patients with severe impairment; use with caution in moderate impairment. (8.8) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C In animal studies, ramelteon produced evidence of developmental toxicity, including teratogenic effects, in rats at doses much greater than the recommended human dose (RHD) of 8 mg/day. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. ROZEREM should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Oral administration of ramelteon (10, 40, 150 or 600 mg/kg/day) to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis was associated with increased incidences of fetal structural abnormalities (malformations and variations) at doses greater than 40 mg/kg/day. The no-effect dose is approximately 50 times the RHD on a body surface area (mg/m2) basis. Treatment of pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis produced no evidence of embryo-fetal toxicity at oral doses of up to 300 mg/kg/day (or up to 720 times the RHD on a mg/m2 basis. When rats were orally administered ramelteon (30, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day) throughout gestation and lactation, growth retardation, developmental delay, and behavioral changes were observed in the offspring at doses greater than 30 mg/kg/day. The no-effect dose is 36 times the RHD on a mg/m2 basis. Increased incidences of malformation and death among offspring were seen at the highest dose. 8.2 Labor and delivery The potential effects of ROZEREM on the duration of labor and/or delivery, for either the mother or the fetus, have not been studied. ROZEREM has no established use in labor and delivery. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether ramelteon is secreted into human milk; however ramelteon is secreted into the milk of lactating rats. Because many drugs are excreted into human milk, caution should be exercised when administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of ROZEREM in pediatric patients have not been established. Further study is needed prior to determining that this product may be used safely in pre-pubescent and pubescent patients. 8.5 Geriatric Use A total of 654 subjects in double-blind, placebo-controlled, efficacy trials who received ROZEREM were at least 65 years of age; of these, 199 were 75 years of age or older. No overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed between elderly and younger adult subjects. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in elderly subjects with insomnia (n=33) evaluated the effect of a single dose of ROZEREM on balance, mobility, and memory functions after middle of the night awakening. There is no information on the effect of multiple dosing. Night time dosing of ROZEREM 8 mg did not impair middle of the night balance, mobility, or memory functions relative to placebo. The effects on night balance in the elderly cannot be definitively known from this study. 8.6 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease The respiratory depressant effect of ROZEREM was evaluated in a crossover design study of subjects (n=26) with mild to moderate COPD after administering a single 16 mg dose or placebo, and in a separate study (n=25), the effects of ROZEREM on respiratory parameters were evaluated after administering an 8 mg dose or placebo in a crossover design to patients with moderate to severe COPD, defined as patients who had forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity ratio of <70%, and a FEV1 <80% of predicted with <12% reversibility to albuterol. Treatment with a single dose of ROZEREM has no demonstrable respiratory depressant effects in subjects with mild to severe COPD, as measured by arterial O2 saturation (SaO2). There is no available information on the respiratory effects of multiple doses of ROZEREM in patients with COPD. The respiratory depressant effects in patients with COPD cannot be definitively known from this study. 8.7 Sleep Apnea The effects of ROZEREM were evaluated after administering a 16 mg dose or placebo in a crossover design to subjects (n=26) with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea. Treatment with ROZEREM 16 mg for one night showed no difference compared with placebo on the Apnea/Hypopnea Index (the primary outcome variable), apnea index, hypopnea index, central apnea index, mixed apnea index, and obstructive apnea index. Treatment with a single dose of ROZEREM does not exacerbate mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea. There is no available information on the respiratory effects of multiple doses of ROZEREM in patients with sleep apnea. The effects on exacerbation in patients with mild to moderate sleep apnea cannot be definitively known from this study. ROZEREM has not been studied in subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea; use of ROZEREM is not recommended in such patients. 8.8 Hepatic Impairment Exposure to ROZEREM was increased by 4-fold in subjects with mild hepatic impairment and by more than 10-fold in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment. ROZEREM should be used with caution in patients with moderate hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)]. ROZEREM is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment. 8.9 Renal Impairment No effects on Cmax and AUC0-t of parent drug or M-II were seen. No adjustment of ROZEREM dosage is required in patients with renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].