Indications and Usage Major Depressive Disorder Sertraline tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. The efficacy of sertraline tablets USP in the treatment of a major depressive episode was established in six to eight week controlled trials of adult outpatients whose diagnoses corresponded most closely to the DSM-III category of major depressive disorder (see Clinical Trials under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). A major depressive episode implies a prominent and relatively persistent depressed or dysphoric mood that usually interferes with daily functioning (nearly every day for at least 2 weeks); it should include at least 4 of the following 8 symptoms: change in appetite, change in sleep, psychomotor agitation or retardation, loss of interest in usual activities or decrease in sexual drive, increased fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, slowed thinking or impaired concentration, and a suicide attempt or suicidal ideation. The antidepressant action of sertraline tablets USP in hospitalized depressed patients has not been adequately studied. The efficacy of sertraline tablets USP in maintaining an antidepressant response for up to 44 weeks following 8 weeks of open-label acute treatment (52 weeks total) was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial. The usefulness of the drug in patients receiving sertraline tablets USP for extended periods should be reevaluated periodically (see Clinical Trials under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Sertraline tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of obsessions and compulsions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), as defined in the DSM-III-R; i.e., the obsessions or compulsions cause marked distress, are time-consuming, or significantly interfere with social or occupational functioning. The efficacy of sertraline tablets USP were established in 12-week trials with obsessive-compulsive outpatients having diagnoses of obsessive-compulsive disorder as defined according to DSM-III or DSM-III-R criteria (see Clinical Trials under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by recurrent and persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions) that are ego-dystonic and/or repetitive, purposeful, and intentional behaviors (compulsions) that are recognized by the person as excessive or unreasonable. The efficacy of sertraline tablets USP in maintaining a response, in patients with OCD who responded during a 52-week treatment phase while taking sertraline tablets USP and were then observed for relapse during a period of up to 28 weeks, was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial (see Clinical Trials under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use sertraline tablets USP for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Panic Disorder Sertraline tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of panic disorder in adults, with or without agoraphobia, as defined in DSM-IV. Panic disorder is characterized by the occurrence of unexpected panic attacks and associated concern about having additional attacks, worry about the implications or consequences of the attacks, and/or a significant change in behavior related to the attacks. The efficacy of sertraline tablets USP were established in three 10 to 12 week trials in adult panic disorder patients whose diagnoses corresponded to the DSM-III-R category of panic disorder (see Clinical Trials under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Panic disorder (DSM-IV) is characterized by recurrent unexpected panic attacks, i.e., a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort in which four (or more) of the following symptoms develop abruptly and reach a peak within 10 minutes: (1) palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate; (2) sweating; (3) trembling or shaking; (4) sensations of shortness of breath or smothering; (5) feeling of choking; (6) chest pain or discomfort; (7) nausea or abdominal distress; (8) feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, or faint; (9) derealization (feelings of unreality) or depersonalization (being detached from oneself); (10) fear of losing control; (11) fear of dying; (12) paresthesias (numbness or tingling sensations); (13) chills or hot flushes. The efficacy of sertraline tablets USP in maintaining a response, in adult patients with panic disorder who responded during a 52-week treatment phase while taking sertraline tablets USP and were then observed for relapse during a period of up to 28 weeks, was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial (see Clinical Trials under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use sertraline tablets USP for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Sertraline tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in adults. The efficacy of sertraline tablets USP in the treatment of PTSD was established in two 12-week placebo-controlled trials of adult outpatients whose diagnosis met criteria for the DSM-III-R category of PTSD (see Clinical Trials under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). PTSD, as defined by DSM-III-R/IV, requires exposure to a traumatic event that involved actual or threatened death or serious injury, or threat to the physical integrity of self or others, and a response which involves intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Symptoms that occur as a result of exposure to the traumatic event include reexperiencing of the event in the form of intrusive thoughts, flashbacks or dreams, and intense psychological distress and physiological reactivity on exposure to cues to the event; avoidance of situations reminiscent of the traumatic event, inability to recall details of the event, and/or numbing of general responsiveness manifested as diminished interest in significant activities, estrangement from others, restricted range of affect, or sense of foreshortened future; and symptoms of autonomic arousal including hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, sleep disturbance, impaired concentration, and irritability or outbursts of anger. A PTSD diagnosis requires that the symptoms are present for at least a month and that they cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The efficacy of sertraline tablets USP in maintaining a response in adult patients with PTSD for up to 28 weeks following 24 weeks of open-label treatment was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial. Nevertheless, the physician who elects to use sertraline tablets USP for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) Sertraline tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in adults. The efficacy of sertraline tablets USP in the treatment of PMDD was established in 2 placebo-controlled trials of female adult outpatients treated for 3 menstrual cycles who met criteria for the DSM-III-R/IV category of PMDD (see Clinical Trials under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). The essential features of PMDD include markedly depressed mood, anxiety or tension, affective lability, and persistent anger or irritability. Other features include decreased interest in activities, difficulty concentrating, lack of energy, change in appetite or sleep, and feeling out of control. Physical symptoms associated with PMDD include breast tenderness, headache, joint and muscle pain, bloating and weight gain. These symptoms occur regularly during the luteal phase and remit within a few days following onset of menses; the disturbance markedly interferes with work or school or with usual social activities and relationships with others. In making the diagnosis, care should be taken to rule out other cyclical mood disorders that may be exacerbated by treatment with an antidepressant. The effectiveness of sertraline tablets USP in long-term use, that is, for more than 3 menstrual cycles, has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials. Therefore, the physician who elects to use sertraline tablets USP for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Social Anxiety Disorder Sertraline tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia in adults. The efficacy of sertraline tablets USP in the treatment of social anxiety disorder was established in two placebo-controlled trials of adult outpatients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder as defined by DSM-IV criteria (see Clinical Trials under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Social anxiety disorder, as defined by DSM-IV, is characterized by marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations involving exposure to unfamiliar people or possible scrutiny by others and by fears of acting in a humiliating or embarrassing way. Exposure to the feared social situation almost always provokes anxiety and feared social or performance situations are avoided or else are endured with intense anxiety or distress. In addition, patients recognize that the fear is excessive or unreasonable and the avoidance and anticipatory anxiety of the feared situation is associated with functional impairment or marked distress. The efficacy of sertraline tablets USP in maintaining a response in adult patients with social anxiety disorder for up to 24 weeks following 20 weeks of sertraline tablets USP treatment was demonstrated in a placebo-controlled trial. Physicians who prescribe sertraline tablets USP for extended periods should periodically re-evaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see Clinical Trials under CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
Contraindications All Dosage Forms of Sertraline The use of MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders with sertraline or within 14 days of stopping treatment with sertraline is contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome. The use of sertraline within 14 days of stopping an MAOI intended to treat psychiatric disorders is also contraindicated (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Starting sertraline in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue is also contraindicated because of an increased risk of serotonin syndrome (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Concomitant use in patients taking pimozide is contraindicated (see PRECAUTIONS). Sertraline tablets are contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to sertraline or any of the inactive ingredients in sertraline tablets.
Adverse Reactions During its premarketing assessment, multiple doses of sertraline were administered to over 4000 adult subjects as of February 18, 2000. The conditions and duration of exposure to sertraline varied greatly, and included (in overlapping categories) clinical pharmacology studies, open and double-blind studies, uncontrolled and controlled studies, inpatient and outpatient studies, fixed-dose and titration studies, and studies for multiple indications, including major depressive disorder, OCD, panic disorder, PTSD, PMDD and social anxiety disorder. Untoward events associated with this exposure were recorded by clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. Consequently, it is not possible to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse events without first grouping similar types of untoward events into a smaller number of standardized event categories. In the tabulations that follow, a World Health Organization dictionary of terminology has been used to classify reported adverse events. The frequencies presented, therefore, represent the proportion of the over 4000 adult individuals exposed to multiple doses of sertraline who experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event of the type cited on at least one occasion while receiving sertraline. An event was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation. It is important to emphasize that events reported during therapy were not necessarily caused by it. The prescriber should be aware that the figures in the tables and tabulations cannot be used to predict the incidence of side effects in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors differ from those that prevailed in the clinical trials. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, and investigators. The cited figures, however, do provide the prescribing physician with some basis for estimating the relative contribution of drug and non-drug factors to the side effect incidence rate in the population studied. Incidence in Placebo-Controlled Trials Table 2 enumerates the most common treatment- emergent adverse events associated with the use of sertraline (incidence of at least 5% for sertraline and at least twice that for placebo within at least one of the indications) for the treatment of adult patients with major depressive disorder/other*, OCD, panic disorder, PTSD, PMDD and social anxiety disorder in placebo-controlled clinical trials. Most patients in major depressive disorder/other*, OCD, panic disorder, PTSD and social anxiety disorder studies received doses of 50 to 200 mg/day. Patients in the PMDD study with daily dosing throughout the menstrual cycle received doses of 50 to 150 mg/day, and in the PMDD study with dosing during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle received doses of 50 to 100 mg/day. Table 3 enumerates treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred in 2% or more of adult patients treated with sertraline and with incidence greater than placebo who participated in controlled clinical trials comparing sertraline with placebo in the treatment of major depressive disorder/other*, OCD, panic disorder, PTSD, PMDD and social anxiety disorder. Please see the manufacturer's complete drug trial information that was submitted to the FDA here: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/lookup.cfm?setid=42120ff8-b353-4632-9ea9-54de9a698724 Other Adverse Events in Pediatric Patients In over 600 pediatric patients treated with sertraline, the overall profile of adverse events was generally similar to that seen in adult studies. However, the following adverse events, from controlled trials, not appearing in Tables 2 and 3, were reported at an incidence of at least 2% and occurred at a rate of at least twice the placebo rate (N=281 patients treated with sertraline): fever, hyperkinesia, urinary incontinence, aggressive reaction, sinusitis, epistaxis and purpura. Other Events Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of sertraline hydrochloride Following is a list of treatment-emergent adverse events reported during premarketing assessment of sertraline in clinical trials (over 4000 adult subjects) except those already listed in the previous tables or elsewhere in labeling. In the tabulations that follow, a World Health Organization dictionary of terminology has been used to classify reported adverse events. The frequencies presented, therefore, represent the proportion of the over 4000 adult individuals exposed to multiple doses of sertraline who experienced an event of the type cited on at least one occasion while receiving sertraline. All events are included except those already listed in the previous tables or elsewhere in labeling and those reported in terms so general as to be uninformative and those for which a causal relationship to sertraline treatment seemed remote. It is important to emphasize that although the events reported occurred during treatment with sertraline, they were not necessarily caused by it. Events are further categorized by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency according to the following definitions: frequent adverse events are those occurring on one or more occasions in at least 1/100 patients; infrequent adverse events are those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients; rare events are those occurring in fewer than 1/1000 patients. Events of major clinical importance are also described in the PRECAUTIONSsection. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders Frequent: impotence. Infrequent: flushing, increased saliva, cold clammy skin, mydriasis. Rare: pallor, glaucoma, priapism, vasodilation. Body as a Whole-General Disorders Rare: allergic reaction, allergy. Cardiovascular Frequent: palpitations, chest pain. Infrequent: hypertension, tachycardia, postural dizziness, postural hypotension, periorbital edema, peripheral edema, hypotension, peripheral ischemia, syncope, edema, dependent edema. Rare: precordial chest pain, substernal chest pain, aggravated hypertension, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disorder. Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders Frequent: hypertonia, hypoesthesia. Infrequent: twitching, confusion, hyperkinesia, vertigo, ataxia, migraine, abnormal coordination, hyperesthesia, leg cramps, abnormal gait, nystagmus, hypokinesia. Rare: dysphonia, coma, dyskinesia, hypotonia, ptosis, choreoathetosis, hyporeflexia. Disorders of Skin and Appendages Infrequent: pruritus, acne, urticaria, alopecia, dry skin, erythematous rash, photosensitivity reaction, maculopapular rash. Rare: follicular rash, eczema, dermatitis, contact dermatitis, bullous eruption, hypertrichosis, skin discoloration, pustular rash. Endocrine Disorders Rare: exophthalmos, gynecomastia. Gastrointestinal Disorders Frequent: appetite increased. Infrequent: dysphagia, tooth caries aggravated, eructation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis. Rare: melena, glossitis, gum hyperplasia, hiccup, stomatitis, tenesmus, colitis, diverticulitis, fecal incontinence, gastritis, rectum hemorrhage, hemorrhagic peptic ulcer, proctitis, ulcerative stomatitis, tongue edema, tongue ulceration. General Frequent: back pain, asthenia, malaise, weight increase. Infrequent: fever, rigors, generalized edema. Rare: face edema, aphthous stomatitis. Hearing and Vestibular Disorders Rare: hyperacusis, labyrinthine disorder. Hematopoietic and Lymphatic Rare: anemia, anterior chamber eye hemorrhage. Liver and Biliary System Disorders Rare: abnormal hepatic function. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders Infrequent: thirst. Rare: hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia reaction. Musculoskeletal System Disorders Frequent: myalgia. Infrequent: arthralgia, dystonia, arthrosis, muscle cramps, muscle weakness. Psychiatric Disorders Frequent: yawning, other male sexual dysfunction, other female sexual dysfunction. Infrequent: depression, amnesia, paroniria, teeth-grinding, emotional lability, apathy, abnormal dreams, euphoria, paranoid reaction, hallucination, aggressive reaction, aggravated depression, delusions. Rare: withdrawal syndrome, suicide ideation, libido increased, somnambulism, illusion. Reproductive Infrequent: menstrual disorder, dysmenorrhea, intermenstrual bleeding, vaginal hemorrhage, amenorrhea, leukorrhea. Rare: female breast pain, menorrhagia, balanoposthitis, breast enlargement, atrophic vaginitis, acute female mastitis. Respiratory System Disorders Frequent: rhinitis. Infrequent: coughing, dyspnea, upper respiratory tract infection, epistaxis, bronchospasm, sinusitis. Rare: hyperventilation, bradypnea, stridor, apnea, bronchitis, hemoptysis, hypoventilation, laryngismus, laryngitis. Special Senses Frequent: tinnitus. Infrequent: conjunctivitis, earache, eye pain, abnormal accommodation. Rare: xerophthalmia, photophobia, diplopia, abnormal lacrimation, scotoma, visual field defect. Urinary System Disorders Infrequent: micturition frequency, polyuria, urinary retention, dysuria, nocturia, urinary incontinence. Rare: cystitis, oliguria, pyelonephritis, hematuria, renal pain, strangury. Laboratory Tests In man, asymptomatic elevations in serum transaminases (SGOT [or AST] and SGPT [or ALT]) have been reported infrequently (approximately 0.8%) in association with sertraline hydrochloride administration. These hepatic enzyme elevations usually occurred within the first 1 to 9 weeks of drug treatment and promptly diminished upon drug discontinuation. Sertraline therapy was associated with small mean increases in total cholesterol (approximately 3%) and triglycerides (approximately 5%), and a small mean decrease in serum uric acid (approximately 7%) of no apparent clinical importance. The safety profile observed with sertraline treatment in patients with major depressive disorder, OCD, panic disorder, PTSD, PMDD and social anxiety disorder is similar. Other Events Observed During the Post marketing Evaluation of Sertraline Hydrochloride Reports of adverse events temporally associated with sertraline that have been received since market introduction, that are not listed above and that may have no causal relationship with the drug, include the following: acute renal failure, anaphylactoid reaction, angioedema, blindness, optic neuritis, cataract, increased coagulation times, bradycardia, AV block, atrial arrhythmias, QT-interval prolongation, ventricular tachycardia (including torsade de pointes-type arrhythmias), cerebrovascular spasm (including reversible cerebral vasconstriction syndrome and Call-Fleming syndrome), hypothyroidism, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia and pancytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, lupus-like syndrome, serum sickness, diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, galactorrhea, hyperprolactinemia, extrapyramidal symptoms, oculogyric crisis, serotonin syndrome, psychosis, pulmonary hypertension, severe skin reactions, which potentially can be fatal, such as Stevens- Johnson syndrome, vasculitis, photosensitivity and other severe cutaneous disorders, rare reports of pancreatitis, and liver events—clinical features (which in the majority of cases appeared to be reversible with discontinuation of sertraline) occurring in one or more patients include: elevated enzymes, increased bilirubin, hepatomegaly, hepatitis, jaundice, abdominal pain, vomiting, liver failure and death.
Drug Interactions Potential Effects of Coadministration of Drugs Highly Bound to Plasma Proteins Because sertraline is tightly bound to plasma protein, the administration of sertraline hydrochloride to a patient taking another drug which is tightly bound to protein (e.g., warfarin, digitoxin) may cause a shift in plasma concentrations potentially resulting in an adverse effect. Conversely, adverse effects may result from displacement of protein bound sertraline by other tightly bound drugs. In a study comparing prothrombin time AUC (0 to 120 hr) following dosing with warfarin (0.75 mg/kg) before and after 21 days of dosing with either sertraline (50 to 200 mg/day) or placebo, there was a mean increase in prothrombin time of 8% relative to baseline for sertraline compared to a 1% decrease for placebo (p<0.02). The normalization of prothrombin time for the sertraline group was delayed compared to the placebo group. The clinical significance of this change is unknown. Accordingly, prothrombin time should be carefully monitored when sertraline therapy is initiated or stopped. Cimetidine In a study assessing disposition of sertraline (100 mg) on the second of 8 days of cimetidine administration (800 mg daily), there were significant increases in sertraline mean AUC (50%), Cmax (24%) and half-life (26%) compared to the placebo group. The clinical significance of these changes is unknown. CNS Active Drugs In a study comparing the disposition of intravenously administered diazepam before and after 21 days of dosing with either sertraline (50 to 200 mg/day escalating dose) or placebo, there was a 32% decrease relative to baseline in diazepam clearance for the sertraline group compared to a 19% decrease relative to baseline for the placebo group (p<0.03). There was a 23% increase in Tmax for desmethyldiazepam in the sertraline group compared to a 20% decrease in the placebo group (p<0.03). The clinical significance of these changes is unknown. In a placebo-controlled trial in normal volunteers, the administration of two doses of sertraline did not significantly alter steady-state lithium levels or the renal clearance of lithium. Nonetheless, at this time, it is recommended that plasma lithium levels be monitored following initiation of sertraline therapy with appropriate adjustments to the lithium dose. In a controlled study of a single dose (2 mg) of pimozide, 200 mg sertraline (q.d.) co- administration to steady state was associated with a mean increase in pimozide AUC and Cmax of about 40%, but was not associated with any changes in EKG. Since the highest recommended pimozide dose (10 mg) has not been evaluated in combination with sertraline, the effect on QT interval and PK parameters at doses higher than 2 mg at this time are not known. While the mechanism of this interaction is unknown, due to the narrow therapeutic index of pimozide and due to the interaction noted at a low dose of pimozide, concomitant administration of sertraline and pimozide should be contraindicated (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Results of a placebo-controlled trial in normal volunteers suggest that chronic administration of sertraline 200 mg/day does not produce clinically important inhibition of phenytoin metabolism. Nonetheless, at this time, it is recommended that plasma phenytoin concentrations be monitored following initiation of sertraline therapy with appropriate adjustments to the phenytoin dose, particularly in patients with multiple underlying medical conditions and/or those receiving multiple concomitant medications. The effect of sertraline on valproate levels has not been evaluated in clinical trials. In the absence of such data, it is recommended that plasma valproate levels be monitored following initiation of sertraline therapy with appropriate adjustments to the valproate dose. The risk of using sertraline in combination with other CNS active drugs has not been systematically evaluated. Consequently, caution is advised if the concomitant administration of sertraline and such drugs is required. There is limited controlled experience regarding the optimal timing of switching from other drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and social anxiety disorder to sertraline. Care and prudent medical judgment should be exercised when switching, particularly from long-acting agents. The duration of an appropriate washout period which should intervene before switching from one selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) to another has not been established. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors See CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Drugs Metabolized by P450 3A4 In three separate in vivo interaction studies, sertraline was co-administered with cytochrome P450 3A4 substrates, terfenadine, carbamazepine, or cisapride under steady-state conditions. The results of these studies indicated that sertraline did not increase plasma concentrations of terfenadine, carbamazepine, or cisapride. These data indicate that sertraline's extent of inhibition of P450 3A4 activity is not likely to be of clinical significance. Results of the interaction study with cisapride indicate that sertraline 200 mg (q.d.) induces the metabolism of cisapride (cisapride AUC and Cmax were reduced by about 35%). Drugs Metabolized by P450 2D6 Many drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder, e.g., the SSRIs, including sertraline, and most tricyclic antidepressant drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder inhibit the biochemical activity of the drug metabolizing isozyme cytochrome P450 2D6 (debrisoquin hydroxylase), and, thus, may increase the plasma concentrations of co-administered drugs that are metabolized by P450 2D6. The drugs for which this potential interaction is of greatest concern are those metabolized primarily by 2D6 and which have a narrow therapeutic index, e.g., the tricyclic antidepressant drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder and the Type 1C antiarrhythmics propafenone and flecainide. The extent to which this interaction is an important clinical problem depends on the extent of the inhibition of P450 2D6 by the antidepressant and the therapeutic index of the co-administered drug. There is variability among the drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder in the extent of clinically important 2D6 inhibition, and in fact sertraline at lower doses has a less prominent inhibitory effect on 2D6 than some others in the class. Nevertheless, even sertraline has the potential for clinically important 2D6 inhibition. Consequently, concomitant use of a drug metabolized by P450 2D6 with sertraline may require lower doses than usually prescribed for the other drug. Furthermore, whenever sertraline is withdrawn from co-therapy, an increased dose of the co-administered drug may be required (see Tricyclic Antidepressant Drugs Effective in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder under PRECAUTIONS). Serotonergic Drugs See CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Triptans There have been rare post marketing reports of serotonin syndrome with use of an SNRI or an SSRI and a triptan. If concomitant treatment of SNRIs and SSRIs, including sertraline, with a triptan is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases (see WARNINGS - Serotonin Syndrome). Sumatriptan There have been rare post marketing reports describing patients with weakness, hyperreflexia, and incoordination following the use of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and sumatriptan. If concomitant treatment with sumatriptan and an SSRI (e.g., citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline) is clinically warranted, appropriate observation of the patient is advised. Tricyclic Antidepressant Drugs Effective in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (TCAs) The extent to which SSRI-TCA interactions may pose clinical problems will depend on the degree of inhibition and the pharmacokinetics of the SSRI involved. Nevertheless, caution is indicated in the co-administration of TCAs with sertraline, because sertraline may inhibit TCA metabolism. Plasma TCA concentrations may need to be monitored, and the dose of TCA may need to be reduced, if a TCA is co-administered with sertraline (see Drugs Metabolized by P450 2D6 under PRECAUTIONS). Hypoglycemic Drugs In a placebo-controlled trial in normal volunteers, administration of sertraline for 22 days (including 200 mg/day for the final 13 days) caused a statistically significant 16% decrease from baseline in the clearance of tolbutamide following an intravenous 1000 mg dose. sertraline administration did not noticeably change either the plasma protein binding or the apparent volume of distribution of tolbutamide, suggesting that the decreased clearance was due to a change in the metabolism of the drug. The clinical significance of this decrease in tolbutamide clearance is unknown. Atenolol Sertraline (100 mg) when administered to 10 healthy male subjects had no effect on the beta-adrenergic blocking ability of atenolol. Digoxin In a placebo-controlled trial in normal volunteers, administration of sertraline for 17 days (including 200 mg/day for the last 10 days) did not change serum digoxin levels or digoxin renal clearance. Microsomal Enzyme Induction Preclinical studies have shown sertraline to induce hepatic microsomal enzymes. In clinical studies, sertraline was shown to induce hepatic enzymes minimally as determined by a small (5%) but statistically significant decrease in antipyrine half-life following administration of 200 mg/day for 21 days. This small change in antipyrine half-life reflects a clinically insignificant change in hepatic metabolism. Drugs That Interfere With Hemostasis (Non-selective NSAIDs, Aspirin, Warfarin, etc.) Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies of the case-control and cohort design that have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may potentiate this risk of bleeding. These studies have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may potentiate this risk of bleeding. Altered anticoagulant effects, including increased bleeding, have been reported when SSRIs or SNRIs are coadministered with warfarin. Patients receiving warfarin therapy should be carefully monitored when sertraline is initiated or discontinued. Electroconvulsive Therapy There are no clinical studies establishing the risks or benefits of the combined use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and sertraline. Alcohol Although sertraline did not potentiate the cognitive and psychomotor effects of alcohol in experiments with normal subjects, the concomitant use of sertraline and alcohol is not recommended. Carcinogenesis Lifetime carcinogenicity studies were carried out in CD-1 mice and Long-Evans rats at doses up to 40 mg/kg/day. These doses correspond to 1 times (mice) and 2 times (rats) the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m2 basis. There was a dose-related increase of liver adenomas in male mice receiving sertraline at 10 to 40 mg/kg (0.25 to 1.0 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). No increase was seen in female mice or in rats of either sex receiving the same treatments, nor was there an increase in hepatocellular carcinomas. Liver adenomas have a variable rate of spontaneous occurrence in the CD-1 mouse and are of unknown significance to humans. There was an increase in follicular adenomas of the thyroid in female rats receiving sertraline at 40 mg/kg (2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis); this was not accompanied by thyroid hyperplasia. While there was an increase in uterine adenocarcinomas in rats receiving sertraline at 10 to 40 mg/kg (0.5 to 2.0 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) compared to placebo controls, this effect was not clearly drug related. Mutagenesis Sertraline had no genotoxic effects, with or without metabolic activation, based on the following assays: bacterial mutation assay; mouse lymphoma mutation assay; and tests for cytogenetic aberrations in vivo in mouse bone marrow and in vitro in human lymphocytes. Impairment of Fertility A decrease in fertility was seen in one of two rat studies at a dose of 80 mg/kg (4 times the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis). Pregnancy-Pregnancy Category C