1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE SPIRIVA HANDIHALER (tiotropium bromide inhalation powder) is indicated for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. SPIRIVA HANDIHALER is indicated to reduce exacerbations in COPD patients. SPIRIVA HANDIHALER is an anticholinergic indicated for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of bronchospasm associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and for reducing COPD exacerbations (1)
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Inhalation Powder: SPIRIVA HANDIHALER consists of SPIRIVA capsules containing tiotropium powder for oral inhalation and a HANDIHALER device. SPIRIVA capsules contain 18 mcg of tiotropium in a light green, hard gelatin capsule with TI 01 printed on one side and Boehringer Ingelheim company logo on the other side. The HANDIHALER device is only intended for use with the SPIRIVA capsules. Inhalation powder: SPIRIVA capsules contain 18 mcg tiotropium powder for use with HANDIHALER device (3)
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS SPIRIVA HANDIHALER is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to tiotropium, ipratropium, or any components of this product [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. In clinical trials and postmarketing experience with SPIRIVA HANDIHALER, immediate hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema (including swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat), itching, or rash have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Hypersensitivity to tiotropium, ipratropium or any components of SPIRIVA capsules (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Not for acute use: Not a rescue medication (5.1) Immediate hypersensitivity reactions: Discontinue SPIRIVA HANDIHALER at once and consider alternatives if immediate hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema, bronchospasm, or anaphylaxis, occur. Use with caution in patients with severe hypersensitivity to milk proteins. (5.2) Paradoxical bronchospasm: Discontinue SPIRIVA HANDIHALER and consider other treatments if paradoxical bronchospasm occurs (5.3) Worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma may occur. Use with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma and instruct patients to consult a physician immediately if this occurs. (5.4) Worsening of urinary retention may occur. Use with caution in patients with prostatic hyperplasia or bladder-neck obstruction and instruct patients to consult a physician immediately if this occurs. (5.5) 5.1 Not for Acute Use SPIRIVA HANDIHALER is intended as a once-daily maintenance treatment for COPD and should not be used for relief of acute symptoms, i.e., as rescue therapy for the treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm. 5.2 Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Immediate hypersensitivity reactions, including urticaria, angioedema (including swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat), rash, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis, or itching, may occur after administration of SPIRIVA HANDIHALER. If such a reaction occurs, therapy with SPIRIVA HANDIHALER should be stopped at once and alternative treatments should be considered. Given the similar structural formula of atropine to tiotropium, patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to atropine or its derivatives should be closely monitored for similar hypersensitivity reactions to SPIRIVA HANDIHALER. In addition, SPIRIVA HANDIHALER should be used with caution in patients with severe hypersensitivity to milk proteins. 5.3 Paradoxical Bronchospasm Inhaled medicines, including SPIRIVA HANDIHALER, may cause paradoxical bronchospasm. If this occurs, it should be treated immediately with an inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist such as albuterol. Treatment with SPIRIVA HANDIHALER should be stopped and other treatments considered. 5.4 Worsening of Narrow-Angle Glaucoma SPIRIVA HANDIHALER should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of acute narrow-angle glaucoma (e.g., eye pain or discomfort, blurred vision, visual halos or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival congestion and corneal edema). Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs or symptoms develop. 5.5 Worsening of Urinary Retention SPIRIVA HANDIHALER should be used with caution in patients with urinary retention. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of urinary retention (e.g., difficulty passing urine, painful urination), especially in patients with prostatic hyperplasia or bladder-neck obstruction. Instruct patients to consult a physician immediately should any of these signs or symptoms develop. 5.6 Renal Impairment As a predominantly renally excreted drug, patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance of <60 mL/min) treated with SPIRIVA HANDIHALER should be monitored closely for anticholinergic side effects [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are described, or described in greater detail, in other sections: Immediate hypersensitivity reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] Paradoxical bronchospasm [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] Worsening of narrow-angle glaucoma [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] Worsening of urinary retention [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] The most common adverse reactions (>5% incidence in the 1-year placebo-controlled trials) were upper respiratory tract infection, dry mouth, sinusitis, pharyngitis, non-specific chest pain, urinary tract infection, dyspepsia, and rhinitis (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at (800) 542-6257 or (800) 459-9906 TTY, or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, the incidence of adverse reactions observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to the incidences in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the incidences observed in practice. 6-Month to 1-Year Trials The data described below reflect exposure to SPIRIVA HANDIHALER in 2663 patients. SPIRIVA HANDIHALER was studied in two 1-year placebo-controlled trials, two 1-year active-controlled trials, and two 6-month placebo-controlled trials in patients with COPD. In these trials, 1308 patients were treated with SPIRIVA HANDIHALER at the recommended dose of 18 mcg once a day. The population had an age ranging from 39 to 87 years with 65% to 85% males, 95% Caucasian, and had COPD with a mean pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) percent predicted of 39% to 43%. Patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, or symptomatic prostatic hypertrophy or bladder outlet obstruction were excluded from these trials. An additional 6-month trial conducted in a Veteran’s Affairs setting is not included in this safety database because only serious adverse events were collected. The most commonly reported adverse drug reaction was dry mouth. Dry mouth was usually mild and often resolved during continued treatment. Other reactions reported in individual patients and consistent with possible anticholinergic effects included constipation, tachycardia, blurred vision, glaucoma (new onset or worsening), dysuria, and urinary retention. Four multicenter, 1-year, placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials evaluated SPIRIVA HANDIHALER in patients with COPD. Table 1 shows all adverse reactions that occurred with a frequency of ≥3% in the SPIRIVA HANDIHALER group in the 1-year placebo-controlled trials where the rates in the SPIRIVA HANDIHALER group exceeded placebo by ≥1%. The frequency of corresponding reactions in the ipratropium-controlled trials is included for comparison. Table 1 Adverse Reactions (% Patients) in One-Year COPD Clinical Trials Body System (Event) Placebo-Controlled Trials Ipratropium-Controlled Trials SPIRIVA (n = 550) Placebo (n = 371) SPIRIVA (n = 356) Ipratropium (n = 179) Body as a Whole Chest Pain (non-specific) 7 5 5 2 Edema, Dependent 5 4 3 5 Gastrointestinal System Disorders Dry Mouth 16 3 12 6 Dyspepsia 6 5 1 1 Abdominal Pain 5 3 6 6 Constipation 4 2 1 1 Vomiting 4 2 1 2 Musculoskeletal System Myalgia 4 3 4 3 Resistance Mechanism Disorders Infection 4 3 1 3 Moniliasis 4 2 3 2 Respiratory System (Upper) Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 41 37 43 35 Sinusitis 11 9 3 2 Pharyngitis 9 7 7 3 Rhinitis 6 5 3 2 Epistaxis 4 2 1 1 Skin and Appendage Disorders Rash 4 2 2 2 Urinary System Urinary Tract Infection 7 5 4 2 Arthritis, coughing, and influenza-like symptoms occurred at a rate of ≥3% in the SPIRIVA HANDIHALER treatment group, but were <1% in excess of the placebo group. Other reactions that occurred in the SPIRIVA HANDIHALER group at a frequency of 1% to 3% in the placebo-controlled trials where the rates exceeded that in the placebo group include: Body as a Whole: allergic reaction, leg pain; Central and Peripheral Nervous System: dysphonia, paresthesia; Gastrointestinal System Disorders: gastrointestinal disorder not otherwise specified (NOS), gastroesophageal reflux, stomatitis (including ulcerative stomatitis); Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia; Musculoskeletal System Disorders: skeletal pain; Cardiac Events: angina pectoris (including aggravated angina pectoris); Psychiatric Disorder: depression; Infections: herpes zoster; Respiratory System Disorder (Upper): laryngitis; Vision Disorder: cataract. In addition, among the adverse reactions observed in the clinical trials with an incidence of <1% were atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, angioedema, and urinary retention. In the 1-year trials, the incidence of dry mouth, constipation, and urinary tract infection increased with age [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5) ]. Two multicenter, 6-month, controlled studies evaluated SPIRIVA HANDIHALER in patients with COPD. The adverse reactions and the incidence rates were similar to those seen in the 1-year controlled trials. 4-Year Trial The data described below reflect exposure to SPIRIVA HANDIHALER in 5992 COPD patients in a 4-year placebo-controlled trial. In this trial, 2986 patients were treated with SPIRIVA HANDIHALER at the recommended dose of 18 mcg once a day. The population had an age range from 40 to 88 years, was 75% male, 90% Caucasian, and had COPD with a mean pre-bronchodilator FEV1 percent predicted of 40%. Patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, or symptomatic prostatic hypertrophy or bladder outlet obstruction were excluded from these trials. When the adverse reactions were analyzed with a frequency of ≥3% in the SPIRIVA HANDIHALER group where the rates in the SPIRIVA HANDIHALER group exceeded placebo by ≥1%, adverse reactions included (SPIRIVA HANDIHALER, placebo): pharyngitis (12.5%, 10.8%), sinusitis (6.5%, 5.3%), headache (5.7%, 4.5%), constipation (5.1%, 3.7%), dry mouth (5.1%, 2.7%), depression (4.4%, 3.3%), insomnia (4.4%, 3.0%), and arthralgia (4.2%, 3.1%). Additional Adverse Reactions Other adverse reactions not previously listed that were reported more frequently in COPD patients treated with SPIRIVA HANDIHALER than placebo include: dehydration, skin ulcer, stomatitis, gingivitis, oropharyngeal candidiasis, dry skin, skin infection, and joint swelling. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience Adverse reactions have been identified during worldwide post-approval use of SPIRIVA HANDIHALER. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These adverse reactions are: application site irritation (glossitis, mouth ulceration, and pharyngolaryngeal pain), dizziness, dysphagia, hoarseness, intestinal obstruction including ileus paralytic, intraocular pressure increased, oral candidiasis, palpitations, pruritus, tachycardia, throat irritation, and urticaria.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Anticholinergics: May interact additively with concomitantly used anticholinergic medications. Avoid administration of SPIRIVA HANDIHALER with other anticholinergic-containing drugs. (7.2) 7.1 Sympathomimetics, Methylxanthines, Steroids SPIRIVA HANDIHALER has been used concomitantly with short-acting and long-acting sympathomimetic (beta-agonists) bronchodilators, methylxanthines, and oral and inhaled steroids without increases in adverse reactions. 7.2 Anticholinergics There is potential for an additive interaction with concomitantly used anticholinergic medications. Therefore, avoid coadministration of SPIRIVA HANDIHALER with other anticholinergic-containing drugs as this may lead to an increase in anticholinergic adverse effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.5) and Adverse Reactions (6) ].
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Patients with moderate to severe renal impairment should be monitored closely for potential anticholinergic side effects (2, 8.6) 8.1 Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. SPIRIVA HANDIHALER should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. No evidence of structural alterations was observed in rats and rabbits at approximately 790 and 8 times the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose (MRHDID), respectively (on a mcg/m2 basis at maternal inhalation doses of 1471 and 7 mcg/kg/day in rats and rabbits, respectively). However, in rats, tiotropium caused fetal resorption, litter loss, decreases in the number of live pups at birth and the mean pup weights, and a delay in pup sexual maturation at inhalation tiotropium doses of approximately 40 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal inhalation dose of 78 mcg/kg/day). In rabbits, tiotropium caused an increase in post-implantation loss at an inhalation dose of approximately 430 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal inhalation dose of 400 mcg/kg/day). Such effects were not observed at inhalation doses of approximately 5 and 95 times the MRHDID, respectively (on a mcg/m2 basis at inhalation doses of 9 and 88 mcg/kg/day in rats and rabbits, respectively). 8.2 Labor and Delivery The safety and effectiveness of SPIRIVA HANDIHALER has not been studied during labor and delivery. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Clinical data from nursing women exposed to tiotropium are not available. Based on lactating rodent studies, tiotropium is excreted into breast milk. It is not known whether tiotropium is excreted in human milk, but because many drugs are excreted in human milk and given these findings in rats, caution should be exercised if SPIRIVA HANDIHALER is administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use SPIRIVA HANDIHALER is not indicated for use in children. The safety and effectiveness of SPIRIVA HANDIHALER in pediatric patients have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Based on available data, no adjustment of SPIRIVA HANDIHALER dosage in geriatric patients is warranted [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Of the total number of patients who received SPIRIVA HANDIHALER in the 1-year clinical trials, 426 were <65 years, 375 were 65 to 74 years, and 105 were ≥75 years of age. Within each age subgroup, there were no differences between the proportion of patients with adverse events in the SPIRIVA HANDIHALER and the comparator groups for most events. Dry mouth increased with age in the SPIRIVA HANDIHALER group (differences from placebo were 9.0%, 17.1%, and 16.2% in the aforementioned age subgroups). A higher frequency of constipation and urinary tract infections with increasing age was observed in the SPIRIVA HANDIHALER group in the placebo-controlled studies. The differences from placebo for constipation were 0%, 1.8%, and 7.8% for each of the age groups. The differences from placebo for urinary tract infections were –0.6%, 4.6%, and 4.5%. No overall differences in effectiveness were observed among these groups. 8.6 Renal Impairment Patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance of <60 mL/min) treated with SPIRIVA HANDIHALER should be monitored closely for anticholinergic side effects [see Dosage and Administration (2), Warnings and Precautions (5.6), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment The effects of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of tiotropium were not studied.