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Bristol-Myers Squibb offers a coupon for Sustiva

Title: Co-Pay Assist Program
Manufacturer: Bristol-Myers Squibb
Phone Number: 1-866-566-6446
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Sustiva Prescribing Information

This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Sustiva safely and effectively. Before taking Sustiva please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Sustiva.

Indications And Usage

SUSTIVA® (efavirenz) in combination with other antiretroviral agents is indicated for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in adults and in pediatric patients at least 3 months old and weighing at least 3.5 kg. SUSTIVA is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in adults and in pediatric patients at least 3 months old and weighing at least 3.5 kg. (1)

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Dosage And Administration

Table 1: SUSTIVA Dosing in Pediatric Patients
Patient Body Weight SUSTIVA Daily Dose Number of Capsulesa or Tabletsb and Strength to Administer
a Capsules can be administered intact or as sprinkles [ see Dosage and Administration (2.3) ]. b Tablets must not be crushed.
3.5 kg to less than 5 kg 100 mg two 50 mg capsules
5 kg to less than 7.5 kg 150 mg three 50 mg capsules
7.5 kg to less than 15 kg 200 mg one 200 mg capsule
15 kg to less than 20 kg 250 mg one 200 mg + one 50 mg capsule
20 kg to less than 25 kg 300 mg one 200 mg + two 50 mg capsules
25 kg to less than 32.5 kg 350 mg one 200 mg + three 50 mg capsules
32.5 kg to less than 40 kg 400 mg two 200 mg capsules
at least 40 kg 600 mg one 600 mg tablet OR three 200 mg capsules

Dosage Forms And Strengths

• Capsules 200 mg capsules are gold color, reverse printed with “SUSTIVA” on the body and imprinted “200 mg” on the cap. 50 mg capsules are gold color and white, printed with “SUSTIVA” on the gold color cap and reverse printed “50 mg” on the white body. • Tablets 600 mg tablets are yellow, capsular-shaped, film-coated tablets, with “SUSTIVA” printed on both sides. •Capsules: 200 mg and 50 mg (3) •Tablets: 600 mg (3)

Contraindications

SUSTIVA is contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated hypersensitivity (eg, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, or toxic skin eruptions) to any of the components of this product. (4.1) 4.1 Hypersensitivity SUSTIVA is contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated clinically significant hypersensitivity (eg, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, or toxic skin eruptions) to any of the components of this product.

Warning and Cautions

• Do not use as a single agent or add on as a sole agent to a failing regimen. Consider potential for cross-resistance when choosing other agents. (5.2) •Not recommended with ATRIPLA, which contains efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, unless needed for dose adjustment when coadministered with rifampin. (5.3) • Serious psychiatric symptoms: Immediate medical evaluation is recommended for serious psychiatric symptoms such as severe depression or suicidal ideation. (5.4, 17) • Nervous system symptoms (NSS): NSS are frequent and usually begin 1-2 days after initiating therapy and resolve in 2-4 weeks. Dosing at bedtime may improve tolerability. NSS are not predictive of onset of psychiatric symptoms. (5.5, 6.1, 17) • Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Avoid administration in the first trimester of pregnancy as fetal harm may occur. (5.6, 8.1) • Hepatotoxicity: Monitor liver function tests before and during treatment in patients with underlying hepatic disease, including hepatitis B or C coinfection, marked transaminase elevations, or who are taking medications associated with liver toxicity. Among reported cases of hepatic failure, a few occurred in patients with no pre-existing hepatic disease. (5.8, 6.1, 8.6) • Rash: Rash usually begins within 1-2 weeks after initiating therapy and resolves within 4 weeks. Discontinue if severe rash develops. (5.7, 6.1, 17) • Convulsions: Use caution in patients with a history of seizures. (5.9) • Lipids: Total cholesterol and triglyceride elevations. Monitor before therapy and periodically thereafter. (5.10) • Immune reconstitution syndrome: May necessitate further evaluation and treatment. (5.11) • Redistribution/accumulation of body fat: Observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. (5.12, 17) 5.1 Drug Interactions Efavirenz plasma concentrations may be altered by substrates, inhibitors, or inducers of CYP3A. Likewise, efavirenz may alter plasma concentrations of drugs metabolized by CYP3A or CYP2B6. The most prominent effect of efavirenz at steady-state is induction of CYP3A and CYP2B6. [See Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Drug Interactions (7.1) .] 5.2 Resistance SUSTIVA must not be used as a single agent to treat HIV-1 infection or added on as a sole agent to a failing regimen. Resistant virus emerges rapidly when efavirenz is administered as monotherapy. The choice of new antiretroviral agents to be used in combination with efavirenz should take into consideration the potential for viral cross-resistance. 5.3 Coadministration with Related Products Coadministration of SUSTIVA with ATRIPLA (efavirenz 600 mg/emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg) is not recommended unless needed for dose adjustment (eg, with rifampin), since efavirenz is one of its active ingredients. 5.4 Psychiatric Symptoms Serious psychiatric adverse experiences have been reported in patients treated with SUSTIVA. In controlled trials of 1008 patients treated with regimens containing SUSTIVA for a mean of 2.1 years and 635 patients treated with control regimens for a mean of 1.5 years, the frequency (regardless of causality) of specific serious psychiatric events among patients who received SUSTIVA or control regimens, respectively, were severe depression (2.4%, 0.9%), suicidal ideation (0.7%, 0.3%), nonfatal suicide attempts (0.5%, 0), aggressive behavior (0.4%, 0.5%), paranoid reactions (0.4%, 0.3%), and manic reactions (0.2%, 0.3%). When psychiatric symptoms similar to those noted above were combined and evaluated as a group in a multifactorial analysis of data from Study 006, treatment with efavirenz was associated with an increase in the occurrence of these selected psychiatric symptoms. Other factors associated with an increase in the occurrence of these psychiatric symptoms were history of injection drug use, psychiatric history, and receipt of psychiatric medication at study entry; similar associations were observed in both the SUSTIVA and control treatment groups. In Study 006, onset of new serious psychiatric symptoms occurred throughout the study for both SUSTIVA-treated and control-treated patients. One percent of SUSTIVA-treated patients discontinued or interrupted treatment because of one or more of these selected psychiatric symptoms. There have also been occasional postmarketing reports of death by suicide, delusions, and psychosis-like behavior, although a causal relationship to the use of SUSTIVA cannot be determined from these reports. Patients with serious psychiatric adverse experiences should seek immediate medical evaluation to assess the possibility that the symptoms may be related to the use of SUSTIVA, and if so, to determine whether the risks of continued therapy outweigh the benefits. [See Adverse Reactions (6.1) .] 5.5 Nervous System Symptoms Fifty-three percent (531/1008) of patients receiving SUSTIVA in controlled trials reported central nervous system symptoms (any grade, regardless of causality) compared to 25% (156/635) of patients receiving control regimens [see Adverse Reactions (6.1, Table 3) ]. These symptoms included, but were not limited to, dizziness (28.1% of the 1008 patients), insomnia (16.3%), impaired concentration (8.3%), somnolence (7.0%), abnormal dreams (6.2%), and hallucinations (1.2%). These symptoms were severe in 2.0% of patients; and 2.1% of patients discontinued therapy as a result. These symptoms usually begin during the first or second day of therapy and generally resolve after the first 2-4 weeks of therapy. After 4 weeks of therapy, the prevalence of nervous system symptoms of at least moderate severity ranged from 5% to 9% in patients treated with regimens containing SUSTIVA and from 3% to 5% in patients treated with a control regimen. Patients should be informed that these common symptoms were likely to improve with continued therapy and were not predictive of subsequent onset of the less frequent psychiatric symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]. Dosing at bedtime may improve the tolerability of these nervous system symptoms [see Dosage and Administration (2) ]. Analysis of long-term data from Study 006 (median follow-up 180 weeks, 102 weeks, and 76 weeks for patients treated with SUSTIVA + zidovudine + lamivudine, SUSTIVA + indinavir, and indinavir + zidovudine + lamivudine, respectively) showed that, beyond 24 weeks of therapy, the incidences of new-onset nervous system symptoms among SUSTIVA-treated patients were generally similar to those in the indinavir-containing control arm. Patients receiving SUSTIVA should be alerted to the potential for additive central nervous system effects when SUSTIVA is used concomitantly with alcohol or psychoactive drugs. Patients who experience central nervous system symptoms such as dizziness, impaired concentration, and/or drowsiness should avoid potentially hazardous tasks such as driving or operating machinery. 5.6 Embryo-Fetal Toxicity Efavirenz may cause fetal harm when administered during the first trimester to a pregnant woman. Advise females of reproductive potential who are receiving SUSTIVA to avoid pregnancy. [See Use in Specific Populations (8.1 and 8.3) .] 5.7 Rash In controlled clinical trials, 26% (266/1008) of adult patients treated with 600 mg SUSTIVA experienced new-onset skin rash compared with 17% (111/635) of those treated in control groups [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ]. Rash associated with blistering, moist desquamation, or ulceration occurred in 0.9% (9/1008) of patients treated with SUSTIVA. The incidence of Grade 4 rash (eg, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome) in adult patients treated with SUSTIVA in all studies and expanded access was 0.1%. Rashes are usually mild-to-moderate maculopapular skin eruptions that occur within the first 2 weeks of initiating therapy with efavirenz (median time to onset of rash in adults was 11 days) and, in most patients continuing therapy with efavirenz, rash resolves within 1 month (median duration, 16 days). The discontinuation rate for rash in adult clinical trials was 1.7% (17/1008). Rash was reported in 59 of 182 pediatric patients (32%) treated with SUSTIVA [see Adverse Reactions (6.2) ]. Two pediatric patients experienced Grade 3 rash (confluent rash with fever, generalized rash), and four patients had Grade 4 rash (erythema multiforme). The median time to onset of rash in pediatric patients was 28 days (range 3-1642 days). Prophylaxis with appropriate antihistamines before initiating therapy with SUSTIVA in pediatric patients should be considered. SUSTIVA can generally be reinitiated in patients interrupting therapy because of rash. SUSTIVA should be discontinued in patients developing severe rash associated with blistering, desquamation, mucosal involvement, or fever. Appropriate antihistamines and/or corticosteroids may improve the tolerability and hasten the resolution of rash. For patients who have had a life-threatening cutaneous reaction (eg, Stevens-Johnson syndrome), alternative therapy should be considered [see also Contraindications (4.1) ]. 5.8 Hepatotoxicity Monitoring of liver enzymes before and during treatment is recommended for patients with underlying hepatic disease, including hepatitis B or C infection; patients with marked transaminase elevations; and patients treated with other medications associated with liver toxicity [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6) ]. A few of the postmarketing reports of hepatic failure occurred in patients with no pre-existing hepatic disease or other identifiable risk factors [see Adverse Reactions (6.2) ]. Liver enzyme monitoring should also be considered for patients without pre-existing hepatic dysfunction or other risk factors. In patients with persistent elevations of serum transaminases to greater than five times the upper limit of the normal range, the benefit of continued therapy with SUSTIVA needs to be weighed against the unknown risks of significant liver toxicity. 5.9 Convulsions Convulsions have been observed in adult and pediatric patients receiving efavirenz, generally in the presence of known medical history of seizures [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2) ]. Caution should be taken in any patient with a history of seizures. Patients who are receiving concomitant anticonvulsant medications primarily metabolized by the liver, such as phenytoin and phenobarbital, may require periodic monitoring of plasma levels [see Drug Interactions (7.1) ]. 5.10 Lipid Elevations Treatment with SUSTIVA has resulted in increases in the concentration of total cholesterol and triglycerides [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ]. Cholesterol and triglyceride testing should be performed before initiating SUSTIVA therapy and at periodic intervals during therapy. 5.11 Immune Reconstitution Syndrome Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including SUSTIVA. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune system responds may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections [such as Mycobacterium avium infection, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP), or tuberculosis], which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment. Autoimmune disorders (such as Graves’ disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome) have also been reported to occur in the setting of immune reconstitution; however, the time to onset is more variable, and can occur many months after initiation of treatment. 5.12 Fat Redistribution Redistribution/accumulation of body fat including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and “cushingoid appearance” have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established.

Adverse Reactions

Most common adverse reactions (>5%, moderate-severe) are impaired concentration, abnormal dreams, rash, dizziness, nausea, headache, fatigue, insomnia, and vomiting. (5.5, 6) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Bristol-Myers Squibb at 1-800-721-5072 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . The most significant adverse reactions observed in patients treated with SUSTIVA are: •psychiatric symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ], •nervous system symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ], •rash [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ]. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, the adverse reaction rates reported cannot be directly compared to rates in other clinical studies and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Adverse Reactions in Adults The most common (>5% in either efavirenz treatment group) adverse reactions of at least moderate severity among patients in Study 006 treated with SUSTIVA in combination with zidovudine/lamivudine or indinavir were rash, dizziness, nausea, headache, fatigue, insomnia, and vomiting. Selected clinical adverse reactions of moderate or severe intensity observed in ≥2% of SUSTIVA-treated patients in two controlled clinical trials are presented in Table 2. Table 2: Selected Treatment-Emergenta Adverse Reactions of Moderate or Severe Intensity Reported in ≥2% of SUSTIVA-Treated Patients in Studies 006 and ACTG 364 Study 006 LAM-, NNRTI-, and Protease Inhibitor-Naive Patients Study ACTG 364 NRTI-experienced, NNRTI-, and Protease Inhibitor-Naive Patients SUSTIVAb + ZDV/LAM (n=412) SUSTIVAb + Indinavir (n=415) Indinavir + ZDV/LAM (n=401) SUSTIVAb + Nelfinavir + NRTIs (n=64) SUSTIVAb + NRTIs (n=65) Nelfinavir + NRTIs (n=66) Adverse Reactions 180 weeksc 102 weeksc 76 weeksc 71.1 weeksc 70.9 weeksc 62.7 weeksc a Includes adverse events at least possibly related to study drug or of unknown relationship for Study 006. Includes all adverse events regardless of relationship to study drug for Study ACTG 364. b SUSTIVA provided as 600 mg once daily. c Median duration of treatment. d Includes erythema multiforme, rash, rash erythematous, rash follicular, rash maculopapular, rash petechial, rash pustular, and urticaria for Study 006 and macules, papules, rash, erythema, redness, inflammation, allergic rash, urticaria, welts, hives, itchy, and pruritus for ACTG 364. — = Not Specified. ZDV = zidovudine, LAM = lamivudine. Body as a Whole Fatigue 8% 5% 9% 0 2% 3% Pain 1% 2% 8% 13% 6% 17% Central and Peripheral Nervous System Dizziness 9% 9% 2% 2% 6% 6% Headache 8% 5% 3% 5% 2% 3% Insomnia 7% 7% 2% 0 0 2% Concentration impaired 5% 3% <1% 0 0 0 Abnormal dreams 3% 1% 0 — — — Somnolence 2% 2% <1% 0 0 0 Anorexia 1% <1% <1% 0 2% 2% Gastrointestinal Nausea 10% 6% 24% 3% 2% 2% Vomiting 6% 3% 14% — — — Diarrhea 3% 5% 6% 14% 3% 9% Dyspepsia 4% 4% 6% 0 0 2% Abdominal pain 2% 2% 5% 3% 3% 3% Psychiatric Anxiety 2% 4% <1% — — — Depression 5% 4% <1% 3% 0 5% Nervousness 2% 2% 0 2% 0 2% Skin & Appendages Rashd 11% 16% 5% 9% 5% 9% Pruritus <1% 1% 1% 9% 5% 9% Pancreatitis has been reported, although a causal relationship with efavirenz has not been established. Asymptomatic increases in serum amylase levels were observed in a significantly higher number of patients treated with efavirenz 600 mg than in control patients (see Laboratory Abnormalities ). Nervous System Symptoms For 1008 patients treated with regimens containing SUSTIVA and 635 patients treated with a control regimen in controlled trials, Table 3 lists the frequency of symptoms of different degrees of severity and gives the discontinuation rates for one or more of the following nervous system symptoms: dizziness, insomnia, impaired concentration, somnolence, abnormal dreaming, euphoria, confusion, agitation, amnesia, hallucinations, stupor, abnormal thinking, and depersonalization [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ]. The frequencies of specific central and peripheral nervous system symptoms are provided in Table 2. Table 3: Percent of Patients with One or More Selected Nervous System Symptomsa,b Percent of Patients with: SUSTIVA 600 mg Once Daily (n=1008) Control Groups (n=635) % % a Includes events reported regardless of causality. b Data from Study 006 and three Phase 2/3 studies. c “Mild” = Symptoms which do not interfere with patient’s daily activities. d “Moderate” = Symptoms which may interfere with daily activities. e “Severe” = Events which interrupt patient’s usual daily activities. Symptoms of any severity 52.7 24.6 Mild symptomsc 33.3 15.6 Moderate symptomsd 17.4 7.7 Severe symptomse 2.0 1.3 Treatment discontinuation as a result of symptoms 2.1 1.1 Psychiatric Symptoms Serious psychiatric adverse experiences have been reported in patients treated with SUSTIVA. In controlled trials, psychiatric symptoms observed at a frequency greater than 2% among patients treated with SUSTIVA or control regimens, respectively, were depression (19%, 16%), anxiety (13%, 9%), and nervousness (7%, 2%). Rash In controlled clinical trials, the frequency of rash (all grades, regardless of causality) was 26% for 1008 adults treated with regimens containing SUSTIVA and 17% for 635 adults treated with a control regimen. Most reports of rash were mild or moderate in severity. The frequency of Grade 3 rash was 0.8% for SUSTIVA-treated patients and 0.3% for control groups, and the frequency of Grade 4 rash was 0.1% for SUSTIVA and 0 for control groups. The discontinuation rates as a result of rash were 1.7% for SUSTIVA-treated patients and 0.3% for control groups [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ]. Experience with SUSTIVA in patients who discontinued other antiretroviral agents of the NNRTI class is limited. Nineteen patients who discontinued nevirapine because of rash have been treated with SUSTIVA. Nine of these patients developed mild-to-moderate rash while receiving therapy with SUSTIVA, and two of these patients discontinued because of rash. Laboratory Abnormalities Selected Grade 3-4 laboratory abnormalities reported in ≥2% of SUSTIVA-treated patients in two clinical trials are presented in Table 4. Table 4: Selected Grade 3-4 Laboratory Abnormalities Reported in ≥2% of SUSTIVA-Treated Patients in Studies 006 and ACTG 364 Study 006 LAM-, NNRTI-, and Protease Inhibitor-Naive Patients Study ACTG 364 NRTI-experienced, NNRTI-, and Protease Inhibitor-Naive Patients Variable Limit SUSTIVAa + ZDV/LAM (n=412) SUSTIVAa + Indinavir (n=415) Indinavir + ZDV/LAM (n=401) SUSTIVAa + Nelfinavir + NRTIs (n=64) SUSTIVAa + NRTIs (n=65) Nelfinavir + NRTIs (n=66) 180 weeksb 102 weeksb 76 weeksb 71.1 weeksb 70.9 weeksb 62.7 weeksb a SUSTIVA provided as 600 mg once daily. b Median duration of treatment. c Isolated elevations of GGT in patients receiving SUSTIVA may reflect enzyme induction not associated with liver toxicity. d Nonfasting. ZDV = zidovudine, LAM = lamivudine, ULN = upper limit of normal, ALT = alanine aminotransferase, AST = aspartate aminotransferase, GGT = gamma-glutamyltransferase. Chemistry ALT >5 × ULN 5% 8% 5% 2% 6% 3% AST >5 × ULN 5% 6% 5% 6% 8% 8% GGTc >5 × ULN 8% 7% 3% 5% 0 5% Amylase >2 × ULN 4% 4% 1% 0 6% 2% Glucose >250 mg/dL 3% 3% 3% 5% 2% 3% Triglyceridesd ≥751 mg/dL 9% 6% 6% 11% 8% 17% Hematology Neutrophils <750/mm3 10% 3% 5% 2% 3% 2% Patients Coinfected with Hepatitis B or C Liver function tests should be monitored in patients with a history of hepatitis B and/or C. In the long-term data set from Study 006, 137 patients treated with SUSTIVA-containing regimens (median duration of therapy, 68 weeks) and 84 treated with a control regimen (median duration, 56 weeks) were seropositive at screening for hepatitis B (surface antigen positive) and/or C (hepatitis C antibody positive). Among these coinfected patients, elevations in AST to greater than five times ULN developed in 13% of patients in the SUSTIVA arms and 7% of those in the control arm, and elevations in ALT to greater than five times ULN developed in 20% of patients in the SUSTIVA arms and 7% of patients in the control arm. Among coinfected patients, 3% of those treated with SUSTIVA-containing regimens and 2% in the control arm discontinued from the study because of liver or biliary system disorders [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ]. Lipids Increases from baseline in total cholesterol of 10-20% have been observed in some uninfected volunteers receiving SUSTIVA. In patients treated with SUSTIVA + zidovudine + lamivudine, increases from baseline in nonfasting total cholesterol and HDL of approximately 20% and 25%, respectively, were observed. In patients treated with SUSTIVA + indinavir, increases from baseline in nonfasting cholesterol and HDL of approximately 40% and 35%, respectively, were observed. Nonfasting total cholesterol levels ≥240 mg/dL and ≥300 mg/dL were reported in 34% and 9%, respectively, of patients treated with SUSTIVA + zidovudine + lamivudine; 54% and 20%, respectively, of patients treated with SUSTIVA + indinavir; and 28% and 4%, respectively, of patients treated with indinavir + zidovudine + lamivudine. The effects of SUSTIVA on triglycerides and LDL in this study were not well characterized since samples were taken from nonfasting patients. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) ]. Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, the adverse reaction rates reported cannot be directly compared to rates in other clinical studies and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Assessment of adverse reactions is based on three clinical trials in 182 HIV-1 infected pediatric patients (3 months to 21 years of age) who received SUSTIVA in combination with other antiretroviral agents for a median of 123 weeks. The adverse reactions observed in the three trials were similar to those observed in clinical trials in adults except that rash was more common in pediatric patients (32% for all grades regardless of causality) and more often of higher grade (ie, more severe). Two (1.1%) pediatric patients experienced Grade 3 rash (confluent rash with fever, generalized rash), and four (2.2%) pediatric patients had Grade 4 rash (all erythema multiforme). Five pediatric patients (2.7%) discontinued from the study because of rash [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ]. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of SUSTIVA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Body as a Whole: allergic reactions, asthenia, redistribution/accumulation of body fat [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) ] Central and Peripheral Nervous System: abnormal coordination, ataxia, cerebellar coordination and balance disturbances, convulsions, hypoesthesia, paresthesia, neuropathy, tremor, vertigo Endocrine: gynecomastia Gastrointestinal: constipation, malabsorption Cardiovascular: flushing, palpitations Liver and Biliary System: hepatic enzyme increase, hepatic failure, hepatitis. A few of the postmarketing reports of hepatic failure, including cases in patients with no pre-existing hepatic disease or other identifiable risk factors, were characterized by a fulminant course, progressing in some cases to transplantation or death. Metabolic and Nutritional: hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, myalgia, myopathy Psychiatric: aggressive reactions, agitation, delusions, emotional lability, mania, neurosis, paranoia, psychosis, suicide Respiratory: dyspnea Skin and Appendages: erythema multiforme, photoallergic dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome Special Senses: abnormal vision, tinnitus

Drug Interactions

Coadministration of efavirenz can alter the concentrations of other drugs and other drugs may alter the concentrations of efavirenz. The potential for drug-drug interactions should be considered before and during therapy. (7.1, 12.3) 7.1 Drug-Drug Interactions Efavirenz has been shown in vivo to induce CYP3A and CYP2B6. Other compounds that are substrates of CYP3A or CYP2B6 may have decreased plasma concentrations when coadministered with SUSTIVA. Drugs that induce CYP3A activity (eg, phenobarbital, rifampin, rifabutin) would be expected to increase the clearance of efavirenz resulting in lowered plasma concentrations [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) ]. Drug interactions with SUSTIVA are summarized in Table 5 [for pharmacokinetics data see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3, Tables 7 and 8) ]. This table includes potentially significant interactions, but is not all inclusive. Table 5: Established and Other Potentially Significant Drug Interactions: Alteration in Dose or Regimen May Be Recommended Based on Drug Interaction Studies or Predicted Interaction Concomitant Drug Class: Drug Name Effect Clinical Comment * The interaction between SUSTIVA and the drug was evaluated in a clinical study. All other drug interactions shown are predicted. This table is not all-inclusive. HIV antiviral agents Protease inhibitor: Fosamprenavir calcium ↓ amprenavir Fosamprenavir (unboosted): Appropriate doses of the combinations with respect to safety and efficacy have not been established. Fosamprenavir/ritonavir: An additional 100 mg/day (300 mg total) of ritonavir is recommended when SUSTIVA is administered with fosamprenavir/ritonavir once daily. No change in the ritonavir dose is required when SUSTIVA is administered with fosamprenavir plus ritonavir twice daily. Protease inhibitor: Atazanavir ↓ atazanavir* Treatment-naive patients: When coadministered with SUSTIVA, the recommended dose of atazanavir is 400 mg with ritonavir 100 mg (together once daily with food) and SUSTIVA 600 mg (once daily on an empty stomach, preferably at bedtime). Treatment-experienced patients: Coadministration of SUSTIVA and atazanavir is not recommended. Protease inhibitor: Indinavir ↓ indinavir* The optimal dose of indinavir, when given in combination with SUSTIVA, is not known. Increasing the indinavir dose to 1000 mg every 8 hours does not compensate for the increased indinavir metabolism due to SUSTIVA. When indinavir at an increased dose (1000 mg every 8 hours) was given with SUSTIVA (600 mg once daily), the indinavir AUC and Cmin were decreased on average by 33-46% and 39-57%, respectively, compared to when indinavir (800 mg every 8 hours) was given alone. Protease inhibitor: Lopinavir/ritonavir ↓ lopinavir* Dose increase of lopinavir/ritonavir is recommended for all patients. Lopinavir/ritonavir tablets should not be administered once daily in combination with SUSTIVA. See the lopinavir/ritonavir prescribing information for dose adjustments of lopinavir/ritonavir when coadministered with efavirenz in adult and pediatric patients. Protease inhibitor: Ritonavir ↑ ritonavir* ↑ efavirenz* When ritonavir 500 mg q12h was coadministered with SUSTIVA 600 mg once daily, the combination was associated with a higher frequency of adverse clinical experiences (eg, dizziness, nausea, paresthesia) and laboratory abnormalities (elevated liver enzymes). Monitoring of liver enzymes is recommended when SUSTIVA is used in combination with ritonavir. Protease inhibitor: Saquinavir ↓ saquinavir* Appropriate doses of the combination of SUSTIVA and saquinavir/ritonavir with respect to safety and efficacy have not been established. NNRTI: Other NNRTIs ↑ or ↓ efavirenz and/or NNRTI Combining two NNRTIs has not been shown to be beneficial. SUSTIVA should not be coadministered with other NNRTIs. CCR5 co-receptor antagonist: Maraviroc ↓ maraviroc* Refer to the full prescribing information for maraviroc for guidance on coadministration with efavirenz. Hepatitis C antiviral agents Protease inhibitor: Boceprevir ↓ boceprevir* Plasma trough concentrations of boceprevir were decreased when boceprevir was coadministered with SUSTIVA, which may result in loss of therapeutic effect. The combination should be avoided. Protease inhibitor: Simeprevir ↓ simeprevir* ↔ efavirenz* Concomitant administration of simeprevir with SUSTIVA is not recommended because it may result in loss of therapeutic effect of simeprevir. Other agents Anticoagulant: Warfarin ↑ or ↓ warfarin Plasma concentrations and effects potentially increased or decreased by SUSTIVA. Anticonvulsants: Carbamazepine ↓ carbamazepine* ↓ efavirenz* There are insufficient data to make a dose recommendation for efavirenz. Alternative anticonvulsant treatment should be used. Phenytoin Phenobarbital ↓ anticonvulsant ↓ efavirenz Potential for reduction in anticonvulsant and/or efavirenz plasma levels; periodic monitoring of anticonvulsant plasma levels should be conducted. Antidepressants: Bupropion ↓ bupropion* The effect of efavirenz on bupropion exposure is thought to be due to the induction of bupropion metabolism. Increases in bupropion dosage should be guided by clinical response, but the maximum recommended dose of bupropion should not be exceeded. Sertraline ↓ sertraline* Increases in sertraline dosage should be guided by clinical response. Antifungals: Voriconazole ↓ voriconazole* ↑ efavirenz* SUSTIVA and voriconazole should not be coadministered at standard doses. Efavirenz significantly decreases voriconazole plasma concentrations, and coadministration may decrease the therapeutic effectiveness of voriconazole. Also, voriconazole significantly increases efavirenz plasma concentrations, which may increase the risk of SUSTIVA-associated side effects. When voriconazole is coadministered with SUSTIVA, voriconazole maintenance dose should be increased to 400 mg every 12 hours and SUSTIVA dose should be decreased to 300 mg once daily using the capsule formulation. SUSTIVA tablets must not be broken. [See Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3, Tables 7 and 8) .] Itraconazole ↓ itraconazole* ↓ hydroxyitraconazole* Since no dose recommendation for itraconazole can be made, alternative antifungal treatment should be considered. Ketoconazole ↓ ketoconazole Drug interaction studies with SUSTIVA and ketoconazole have not been conducted. SUSTIVA has the potential to decrease plasma concentrations of ketoconazole. Posaconazole ↓ posaconazole* Avoid concomitant use unless the benefit outweighs the risks. Anti-infective: Clarithromycin ↓ clarithromycin* ↑ 14-OH metabolite* Plasma concentrations decreased by SUSTIVA; clinical significance unknown. In uninfected volunteers, 46% developed rash while receiving SUSTIVA and clarithromycin. No dose adjustment of SUSTIVA is recommended when given with clarithromycin. Alternatives to clarithromycin, such as azithromycin, should be considered (see Other Drugs , following table). Other macrolide antibiotics, such as erythromycin, have not been studied in combination with SUSTIVA. Antimycobacterials: Rifabutin ↓ rifabutin* Increase daily dose of rifabutin by 50%. Consider doubling the rifabutin dose in regimens where rifabutin is given 2 or 3 times a week. Rifampin ↓ efavirenz* If SUSTIVA is coadministered with rifampin to patients weighing 50 kg or more, an increase in the dose of SUSTIVA to 800 mg once daily is recommended. Antimalarials: Artemether/lumefantrine ↓ artemether* ↓ dihydroartemisinin* ↓ lumefantrine* Artemether/lumefantrine should be used cautiously with efavirenz because decreased artemether, dihydroartemisinin (active metabolite of artemether), and/or lumefantrine concentrations may result in a decrease of antimalarial efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine. Calcium channel blockers: Diltiazem ↓ diltiazem* ↓ desacetyl diltiazem* ↓ N-monodesmethyl diltiazem* Diltiazem dose adjustments should be guided by clinical response (refer to the full prescribing information for diltiazem). No dose adjustment of efavirenz is necessary when administered with diltiazem. Others (eg, felodipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, verapamil) ↓ calcium channel blocker No data are available on the potential interactions of efavirenz with other calcium channel blockers that are substrates of CYP3A. The potential exists for reduction in plasma concentrations of the calcium channel blocker. Dose adjustments should be guided by clinical response (refer to the full prescribing information for the calcium channel blocker). HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: Atorvastatin Pravastatin Simvastatin ↓ atorvastatin* ↓ pravastatin* ↓ simvastatin* Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin decreased. Consult the full prescribing information for the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor for guidance on individualizing the dose. Hormonal contraceptives: Oral Ethinyl estradiol/ Norgestimate ↓ active metabolites of norgestimate* A reliable method of barrier contraception should be used in addition to hormonal contraceptives. Efavirenz had no effect on ethinyl estradiol concentrations, but progestin levels (norelgestromin and levonorgestrel) were markedly decreased. No effect of ethinyl estradiol/norgestimate on efavirenz plasma concentrations was observed. Implant Etonogestrel ↓ etonogestrel A reliable method of barrier contraception should be used in addition to hormonal contraceptives. The interaction between etonogestrel and efavirenz has not been studied. Decreased exposure of etonogestrel may be expected. There have been postmarketing reports of contraceptive failure with etonogestrel in efavirenz-exposed patients. Immunosuppressants: Cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus, and others metabolized by CYP3A ↓ immunosuppressant Decreased exposure of the immunosuppressant may be expected due to CYP3A induction. These immunosuppressants are not anticipated to affect exposure of efavirenz. Dose adjustments of the immunosuppressant may be required. Close monitoring of immunosuppressant concentrations for at least 2 weeks (until stable concentrations are reached) is recommended when starting or stopping treatment with efavirenz. Narcotic analgesic: Methadone ↓ methadone* Coadministration in HIV-infected individuals with a history of injection drug use resulted in decreased plasma levels of methadone and signs of opiate withdrawal. Methadone dose was increased by a mean of 22% to alleviate withdrawal symptoms. Patients should be monitored for signs of withdrawal and their methadone dose increased as required to alleviate withdrawal symptoms. Other Drugs Based on the results of drug interaction studies [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3, Tables 7 and 8) ], no dosage adjustment is recommended when SUSTIVA is given with the following: aluminum/magnesium hydroxide antacids, azithromycin, cetirizine, famotidine, fluconazole, lamivudine, lorazepam, nelfinavir, paroxetine, raltegravir, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, and zidovudine. Specific drug interaction studies have not been performed with SUSTIVA and NRTIs other than lamivudine and zidovudine. Clinically significant interactions would not be expected since the NRTIs are metabolized via a different route than efavirenz and would be unlikely to compete for the same metabolic enzymes and elimination pathways. 7.2 Cannabinoid Test Interaction Efavirenz does not bind to cannabinoid receptors. False-positive urine cannabinoid test results have been reported with some screening assays in uninfected and HIV-infected subjects receiving efavirenz. Confirmation of positive screening tests for cannabinoids by a more specific method is recommended.

Use In Specific Populations

• Lactation: Breastfeeding not recommended. (8.2) • Females and Males of Reproductive Potential: Pregnancy testing and contraception are recommended. (8.3) • Hepatic impairment: SUSTIVA is not recommended for patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. Use caution in patients with mild hepatic impairment. (8.6) • Pediatric patients: The incidence of rash was higher than in adults. (5.7, 6.2, 8.4) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Exposure Registry There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to SUSTIVA during pregnancy. Physicians are encouraged to register patients by calling the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry at 1-800-258-4263. Risk Summary There are retrospective case reports of neural tube defects in infants whose mothers were exposed to efavirenz containing regimens in the first trimester of pregnancy. Prospective pregnancy data from the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry are not sufficient to adequately assess this risk. Available data from the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry show no difference in the risk of overall major birth defects compared to the background rate for major birth defects of 2.7% in the U.S. reference population of the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP). Although a causal relationship has not been established between exposure to efavirenz in the first trimester and neural tube defects, similar malformations have been observed in studies conducted in monkeys at doses similar to the human dose. In addition, fetal and embryonic toxicities occurred in rats, at a dose ten times less than the human exposure at recommended clinical dose. Because of the potential risk of neural tube defects, efavirenz should not be used in the first trimester of pregnancy. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Data Human Data There are retrospective postmarketing reports of findings consistent with neural tube defects, including meningomyelocele, all in infants of mothers exposed to efavirenz-containing regimens in the first trimester. Based on prospective reports from the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry (APR) of approximately 1000 live births following exposure to efavirenz containing regimens (including over 800 live births exposed in the first trimester), there was no difference between efavirenz and overall birth defects compared with the background birth defect rate of 2.7% in the U.S. reference population of the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program. As of the interim APR report issued December 2014, the prevalence of birth defects following first-trimester exposure was 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4%-3.6%). One of these prospectively reported defects with first-trimester exposure was a neural tube defect. A single case of anophthalmia with first-trimester exposure to efavirenz has also been prospectively reported. This case also included severe oblique facial clefts and amniotic banding, which have a known association with anophthalmia. Animal Data Effects of efavirenz on embryo-fetal development have been studied in three nonclinical species (cynomolgus monkeys, rats, and rabbits). In monkeys, efavirenz 60 mg/kg/day was administered to pregnant females throughout pregnancy (gestation days 20 through 150). The maternal systemic drug exposures (AUC) were 1.3 times the exposure in humans at the recommended clinical dose (600 mg/day), with fetal umbilical venous drug concentrations approximately 0.7 times the maternal values. Three of 20 fetuses/infants had one or more malformations; there were no malformed fetuses or infants from placebo-treated mothers. The malformations that occurred in these three monkey fetuses included anencephaly and unilateral anophthalmia in one fetus, microphthalmia in a second, and cleft palate in the third. There was no NOAEL (no observable adverse effect level) established for this study because only one dosage was evaluated. In rats, efavirenz was administered either during organogenesis (gestation days 7 to 18) or from gestation day 7 through lactation day 21 at 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day. Administration of 200 mg/kg/day in rats was associated with increase in the incidence of early resorptions; and doses 100 mg/kg/day and greater were associated with early neonatal mortality. The AUC at the NOAEL (50 mg/kg/day) in this rat study was 0.1 times that in humans at the recommended clinical dose. Drug concentrations in the milk on lactation day 10 were approximately 8 times higher than those in maternal plasma. In pregnant rabbits, efavirenz was neither embryo lethal nor teratogenic when administered at doses of 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg/day over the period of organogenesis (gestation days 6 through 18). The AUC at the NOAEL (75 mg/kg/day) in rabbits was 0.4 times that in humans at the recommended clinical dose. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV. Because of the potential for HIV transmission in breastfed infants, advise women not to breastfeed. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Because of potential teratogenic effects, pregnancy should be avoided in women receiving SUSTIVA. [See Use in Specific Populations (8.1).] Pregnancy Testing Females of reproductive potential should undergo pregnancy testing before initiation of SUSTIVA. Contraception Females of reproductive potential should use effective contraception during treatment with SUSTIVA and for 12 weeks after discontinuing SUSTIVA due to the long half-life of efavirenz. Barrier contraception should always be used in combination with other methods of contraception. Hormonal methods that contain progesterone may have decreased effectiveness [see Drug Interactions (7.1) ]. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety, pharmacokinetic profile, and virologic and immunologic responses of SUSTIVA were evaluated in antiretroviral-naive and -experienced HIV-1 infected pediatric patients 3 months to 21 years of age in three open-label clinical trials [see Adverse Reactions (6.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14.2) ]. The type and frequency of adverse reactions in these trials were generally similar to those of adult patients with the exception of a higher frequency of rash, including a higher frequency of Grade 3 or 4 rash, in pediatric patients compared to adults [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) and Adverse Reactions (6.2) ]. Use of SUSTIVA in patients younger than 3 months of age OR less than 3.5 kg body weight is not recommended because the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of SUSTIVA have not been evaluated in this age group and there is a risk of developing HIV resistance if SUSTIVA is underdosed. See Dosage and Administration (2.2) for dosing recommendations for pediatric patients. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of SUSTIVA did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other therapy. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment SUSTIVA is not recommended for patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment because there are insufficient data to determine whether dose adjustment is necessary. Patients with mild hepatic impairment may be treated with efavirenz without any adjustment in dose. Because of the extensive cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of efavirenz and limited clinical experience in patients with hepatic impairment, caution should be exercised in administering SUSTIVA to these patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

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