To minimize the risk of induced arrhythmia, patients initiated or re-initiated on TIKOSYN should be placed for a minimum of 3 days in a facility that can provide calculations of creatinine clearance, continuous electrocardiographic monitoring, and cardiac resuscitation. For detailed instructions regarding dose selection, see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .
INDICATIONS AND USAGE Maintenance of Normal Sinus Rhythm (Delay in AF/AFl Recurrence) TIKOSYN is indicated for the maintenance of normal sinus rhythm (delay in time to recurrence of atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter [AF/AFl]) in patients with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter of greater than one week duration who have been converted to normal sinus rhythm. Because TIKOSYN can cause life threatening ventricular arrhythmias, it should be reserved for patients in whom atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter is highly symptomatic. In general, antiarrhythmic therapy for atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter aims to prolong the time in normal sinus rhythm. Recurrence is expected in some patients (see CLINICAL STUDIES ). Conversion of Atrial Fibrillation/Flutter TIKOSYN is indicated for the conversion of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter to normal sinus rhythm. TIKOSYN has not been shown to be effective in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
|creatinine clearance (male) = || (140-age) × actual body weight in kg 72 × serum creatinine (mg/dL) |
|creatinine clearance (female) = || (140-age) × actual body weight in kg × 0.85 72 × serum creatinine (mg/dL) |
CONTRAINDICATIONS TIKOSYN is contraindicated in patients with congenital or acquired long QT syndromes. TIKOSYN should not be used in patients with a baseline QT interval or QTc >440 msec (500 msec in patients with ventricular conduction abnormalities). TIKOSYN is also contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment (calculated creatinine clearance <20 mL/min). The concomitant use of verapamil or the cation transport system inhibitors cimetidine, trimethoprim (alone or in combination with sulfamethoxazole), or ketoconazole with TIKOSYN is contraindicated (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS, Drug-Drug Interactions ), as each of these drugs cause a substantial increase in dofetilide plasma concentrations. In addition, other known inhibitors of the renal cation transport system such as prochlorperazine, dolutegravir and megestrol should not be used in patients on TIKOSYN. The concomitant use of hydrochlorothiazide (alone or in combinations such as with triamterene) with TIKOSYN is contraindicated (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug-Drug Interactions ) because this has been shown to significantly increase dofetilide plasma concentrations and QT interval prolongation. TIKOSYN is also contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drug.
ADVERSE REACTIONS The TIKOSYN clinical program involved approximately 8,600 patients in 130 clinical studies of normal volunteers and patients with supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. TIKOSYN was administered to 5,194 patients, including two large, placebo-controlled mortality trials (DIAMOND CHF and DIAMOND MI) in which 1,511 patients received TIKOSYN for up to three years. In the following section, adverse reaction data for cardiac arrhythmias and non-cardiac adverse reactions are presented separately for patients included in the supraventricular arrhythmia development program and for patients included in the DIAMOND CHF and MI mortality trials (see CLINICAL STUDIES, Safety in Patients with Structural Heart Disease, DIAMOND Studies , for a description of these trials). In studies of patients with supraventricular arrhythmias, a total of 1,346 and 677 patients were exposed to TIKOSYN and placebo for 551 and 207 patient years, respectively. A total of 8.7% of patients in the dofetilide groups were discontinued from clinical trials due to adverse events compared to 8.0% in the placebo groups. The most frequent reason for discontinuation (>1%) was ventricular tachycardia (2.0% on dofetilide vs. 1.3% on placebo). The most frequent adverse events were headache, chest pain, and dizziness. Serious Arrhythmias and Conduction Disturbances Torsade de Pointes is the only arrhythmia that showed a dose-response relationship to TIKOSYN treatment. It did not occur in placebo treated patients. The incidence of Torsade de Pointes in patients with supraventricular arrhythmias was 0.8% (11/1346) (see WARNINGS ). The incidence of Torsade de Pointes in patients who were dosed according to the recommended dosing regimen (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ) was 0.8% (4/525). Table 6 shows the frequency by randomized dose of serious arrhythmias and conduction disturbances reported as adverse events in patients with supraventricular arrhythmias. Table 6: Incidence of Serious Arrhythmias and Conduction Disturbances in Patients with Supraventricular Arrhythmias TIKOSYN Dose Placebo Arrhythmia event: <250 mcg BID N=217 250 mcg BID N=388 >250–500 mcg BID N=703 >500 mcg BID N=38 N=677 Ventricular arrhythmiasPatients with more than one arrhythmia are counted only once in this category. Ventricular arrhythmias and ventricular tachycardia include all cases of Torsade de Pointes. 3.7% 2.6% 3.4% 15.8% 2.7% Ventricular fibrillation 0 0.3% 0.4% 2.6% 0.1% Ventricular tachycardia 3.7% 2.6% 3.3% 13.2% 2.5% Torsade de Pointes 0 0.3% 0.9% 10.5% 0 Various forms of block AV block 0.9% 1.5% 0.4% 0 0.3% Bundle branch block 0 0.5% 0.1% 0 0.1% Heart block 0 0.5% 0.1% 0 0.1% In the DIAMOND trials, a total of 1,511 patients were exposed to TIKOSYN for 1757 patient years. The incidence of Torsade de Pointes was 3.3% in CHF patients and 0.9% in patients with a recent MI. Table 7 shows the incidence of serious arrhythmias and conduction disturbances reported as adverse events in the DIAMOND subpopulation that had AF at entry to these trials. Table 7: Incidence of Serious Arrhythmias and Conduction Disturbances in Patients with AF at Entry to the DIAMOND Studies TIKOSYN Placebo N=249 N=257 Ventricular arrhythmiasPatients with more than one arrhythmia are counted only once in this category. Ventricular arrhythmias and ventricular tachycardia include all cases of Torsade de Pointes. 14.5% 13.6% Ventricular fibrillation 4.8% 3.1% Ventricular tachycardia 12.4% 11.3% Torsade de Pointes 1.6% 0 Various forms of block AV block 0.8% 2.7% (Left) bundle branch block 0 0.4% Heart block 1.2% 0.8% Other Adverse Reactions Table 8 presents other adverse events reported with a frequency of >2% on TIKOSYN and reported numerically more frequently on TIKOSYN than on placebo in the studies of patients with supraventricular arrhythmias. Table 8: Frequency of Adverse Events Occurring at >2% on TIKOSYN, and Numerically More Frequently on TIKOSYN than Placebo in Patients with Supraventricular Arrhythmias TIKOSYN Placebo Adverse Event % % headache 11 9 chest pain 10 7 dizziness 8 6 respiratory tract infection 7 5 dyspnea 6 5 nausea 5 4 flu syndrome 4 2 insomnia 4 3 accidental injury 3 1 back pain 3 2 procedure (medical/surgical/health service) 3 2 diarrhea 3 2 rash 3 2 abdominal pain 3 2 Adverse events reported at a rate >2% but no more frequently on TIKOSYN than on placebo were: angina pectoris, anxiety, arthralgia, asthenia, atrial fibrillation, complications (application, injection, incision, insertion, or device), hypertension, pain, palpitation, peripheral edema, supraventricular tachycardia, sweating, urinary tract infection, ventricular tachycardia. The following adverse events have been reported with a frequency of ≤2% and numerically more frequently with TIKOSYN than placebo in patients with supraventricular arrhythmias: angioedema, bradycardia, cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular accident, edema, facial paralysis, flaccid paralysis, heart arrest, increased cough, liver damage, migraine, myocardial infarct, paralysis, paresthesia, sudden death, and syncope. The incidences of clinically significant laboratory test abnormalities in patients with supraventricular arrhythmias were similar for patients on TIKOSYN and those on placebo. No clinically relevant effects were noted in serum alkaline phosphatase, serum GGT, LDH, AST, ALT, total bilirubin, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum electrolytes (calcium, chloride, glucose, magnesium, potassium, sodium), or creatine kinase. Similarly, no clinically relevant effects were observed in hematologic parameters. In the DIAMOND population, adverse events other than those related to the post-infarction and heart failure patient population were generally similar to those seen in the supraventricular arrhythmia groups.