1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Trileptal is indicated for use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in adults and as monotherapy in the treatment of partial seizures in children aged 4 years and above with epilepsy, and as adjunctive therapy in children aged 2 years and above with partial seizures. Trileptal is an antiepileptic drug indicated for: Adults: - Monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures Children: - Monotherapy in the treatment of partial seizures in children 4-16 years - Adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in children 2-16 years (1)
Table 1 Range of Maintenance Doses of Trileptal for Children by Weight During Monotherapy
| || From || To |
| Weight in kg || Dose (mg/day) || Dose (mg/day) |
| 20 ||600 ||900 |
| 25 ||900 ||1200 |
| 30 ||900 ||1200 |
| 35 ||900 ||1500 |
| 40 ||900 ||1500 |
| 45 ||1200 ||1500 |
| 50 ||1200 ||1800 |
| 55 ||1200 ||1800 |
| 60 ||1200 ||2100 |
| 65 ||1200 ||2100 |
| 70 ||1500 ||2100 |
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Film-coated Tablets: 150 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg. Oral Suspension: 300 mg/5 mL (60 mg/mL) Film-coated tablets: 150 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg (3) Oral suspension a 300 mg/5 mL (60 mg/mL) (3)
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Trileptal should not be used in patients with a known hypersensitivity to oxcarbazepine or to any of its components. Trileptal should not be used in patients with a known hypersensitivity to oxcarbazepine or to any of its components (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Hyponatremia (5.1) Anaphylactic Reactions and Angioedema (5.2) Patients with a Past History of Hypersensitivity Reaction to Carbamazepine (5.3) Serious Dermatological Reactions (5.4) Suicidal Behavior and Ideation (5.5) Withdrawal of AEDs (5.6) Cognitive/Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events (5.7) Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)/Multi-Organ Hypersensitivity (5.8) Hematologic Events (5.9) Seizure Control During Pregnancy (5.10) Laboratory Tests (5.11) 5.1 Hyponatremia Clinically significant hyponatremia (sodium <125 mmol/L) can develop during Trileptal use. In the 14 controlled epilepsy studies 2.5% of Trileptal-treated patients (38/1,524) had a sodium of less than 125 mmol/L at some point during treatment, compared to no such patients assigned placebo or active control (carbamazepine and phenobarbital for adjunctive and monotherapy substitution studies, and phenytoin and valproate for the monotherapy initiation studies). Clinically significant hyponatremia generally occurred during the first three months of treatment with Trileptal, although there were patients who first developed a serum sodium <125 mmol/L more than one year after initiation of therapy. Most patients who developed hyponatremia were asymptomatic but patients in the clinical trials were frequently monitored and some had their Trileptal dose reduced, discontinued, or had their fluid intake restricted for hyponatremia. Whether or not these maneuvers prevented the occurrence of more severe events is unknown. Cases of symptomatic hyponatremia have been reported during post-marketing use. In clinical trials, patients whose treatment with Trileptal was discontinued due to hyponatremia generally experienced normalization of serum sodium within a few days without additional treatment. Measurement of serum sodium levels should be considered for patients during maintenance treatment with Trileptal, particularly if the patient is receiving other medications known to decrease serum sodium levels (for example, drugs associated with inappropriate ADH secretion) or if symptoms possibly indicating hyponatremia develop (e.g., nausea, malaise, headache, lethargy, confusion, obtundation, or increase in seizure frequency or severity). 5.2 Anaphylactic Reactions and Angioedema Rare cases of anaphylaxis and angioedema involving the larynx, glottis, lips and eyelids have been reported in patients after taking the first or subsequent doses of Trileptal. Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema can be fatal. If a patient develops any of these reactions after treatment with Trileptal, the drug should be discontinued and an alternative treatment started. These patients should not be rechallenged with the drug [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. 5.3 Patients with a Past History of Hypersensitivity Reaction to Carbamazepine Patients who have had hypersensitivity reactions to carbamazepine should be informed that approximately 25%-30% of them will experience hypersensitivity reactions with Trileptal. For this reason patients should be specifically questioned about any prior experience with carbamazepine, and patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to carbamazepine should ordinarily be treated with Trileptal only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk. If signs or symptoms of hypersensitivity develop, Trileptal should be discontinued immediately [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.8)]. 5.4 Serious Dermatological Reactions Serious dermatological reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), have been reported in both children and adults in association with Trileptal use. Such serious skin reactions may be life threatening, and some patients have required hospitalization, with very rare reports of fatal outcome. The median time of onset for reported cases was 19 days after treatment initiation. Recurrence of the serious skin reactions following rechallenge with Trileptal has also been reported. The reporting rate of TEN and SJS associated with Trileptal use, which is generally accepted to be an underestimate due to underreporting, exceeds the background incidence rate estimates by a factor of 3- to 10-fold. Estimates of the background incidence rate for these serious skin reactions in the general population range between 0.5 to 6 cases per million-person years. Therefore, if a patient develops a skin reaction while taking Trileptal, consideration should be given to discontinuing Trileptal use and prescribing another antiepileptic medication. Association with HLA-B*1502 Patients carrying the HLA-B*1502 allele may be at increased risk for SJS/TEN with Trileptal treatment. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) allele B*1502 increases the risk for developing SJS/TEN in patients treated with carbamazepine. The chemical structure of Trileptal is similar to that of carbamazepine. Available clinical evidence, and data from nonclinical studies showing a direct interaction between Trileptal and HLA-B*1502 protein, suggest that the HLA-B*1502 allele may also increase the risk for SJS/TEN with Trileptal. The frequency of HLA-B*1502 allele ranges from 2 to 12% in Han Chinese populations, is about 8% in Thai populations, and above 15% in the Philippines and in some Malaysian populations. Allele frequencies up to about 2% and 6% have been reported in Korea and India, respectively. The frequency of the HLA-B*1502 allele is negligible in people from European descent, several African populations, indigenous peoples of the Americas, Hispanic populations, and in Japanese (<1%). Testing for the presence of the HLA-B*1502 allele should be considered in patients with ancestry in genetically at-risk populations, prior to initiating treatment with Trileptal. The use of Trileptal should be avoided in patients positive for HLA-B*1502 unless the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. Consideration should also be given to avoid the use of other drugs associated with SJS/TEN in HLA-B*1502 positive patients, when alternative therapies are otherwise equally acceptable. Screening is not generally recommended in patients from populations in which the prevalence of HLA-B*1502 is low, or in current Trileptal users, as the risk of SJS/TEN is largely confined to the first few months of therapy, regardless of HLA-B*1502 status. The use of HLA-B*1502 genotyping has important limitations and must never substitute for appropriate clinical vigilance and patient management. The role of other possible factors in the development of, and morbidity from, SJS/TEN, such as antiepileptic drug (AED) dose, compliance, concomitant medications, comorbidities, and the level of dermatologic monitoring have not been well characterized. 5.5 Suicidal Behavior and Ideation Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including Trileptal, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior. Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI:1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide. The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed. The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5-100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed. Table 2 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs. Table 2 Risk by Indication for Antiepileptic Drugs in the Pooled Analysis Indication Placebo Patients with Events Per 1,000 Patients Drug Patients with Events Per 1,000 Patients Relative Risk: Incidence of Events in Drug Patients/Incidence in Placebo Patients Risk Difference: Additional Drug Patients with Events Per 1,000 Patients Epilepsy 1.0 3.4 3.5 2.4 Psychiatric 5.7 8.5 1.5 2.9 Other 1.0 1.8 1.9 0.9 Total 2.4 4.3 1.8 1.9 The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials for epilepsy than in clinical trials for psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications. Anyone considering prescribing Trileptal or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, the prescriber needs to consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated. Patients, their caregivers, and families should be informed that AEDs increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of the signs and symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers. 5.6 Withdrawal of AEDs As with all antiepileptic drugs, Trileptal should be withdrawn gradually to minimize the potential of increased seizure frequency. 5.7 Cognitive/Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events Use of Trileptal has been associated with central nervous system-related adverse events. The most significant of these can be classified into three general categories: 1) cognitive symptoms including psychomotor slowing, difficulty with concentration, and speech or language problems, 2) somnolence or fatigue, and 3) coordination abnormalities, including ataxia and gait disturbances. Adult Patients In one large, fixed-dose study, Trileptal was added to existing AED therapy (up to three concomitant AEDs). By protocol, the dosage of the concomitant AEDs could not be reduced as Trileptal was added, reduction in Trileptal dosage was not allowed if intolerance developed, and patients were discontinued if unable to tolerate their highest target maintenance doses. In this trial, 65% of patients were discontinued because they could not tolerate the 2400 mg/day dose of Trileptal on top of existing AEDs. The adverse events seen in this study were primarily CNS related and the risk for discontinuation was dose related. In this trial, 7.1% of oxcarbazepine-treated patients and 4% of placebo-treated patients experienced a cognitive adverse event. The risk of discontinuation for these events was about 6.5 times greater on oxcarbazepine than on placebo. In addition, 26% of oxcarbazepine-treated patients and 12% of placebo-treated patients experienced somnolence. The risk of discontinuation for somnolence was about 10 times greater on oxcarbazepine than on placebo. Finally, 28.7% of oxcarbazepine-treated patients and 6.4% of placebo-treated patients experienced ataxia or gait disturbances. The risk for discontinuation for these events was about seven times greater on oxcarbazepine than on placebo. In a single placebo-controlled monotherapy trial evaluating 2400 mg/day of Trileptal, no patients in either treatment group discontinued double-blind treatment because of cognitive adverse events, somnolence, ataxia, or gait disturbance. In the two dose-controlled conversion to monotherapy trials comparing 2400 mg/day and 300 mg/day Trileptal, 1.1% of patients in the 2400 mg/day group discontinued double-blind treatment because of somnolence or cognitive adverse events compared to 0% in the 300 mg/day group. In these trials, no patients discontinued because of ataxia or gait disturbances in either treatment group. Pediatric Patients A study was conducted in pediatric patients (3 to 17 years old) with inadequately controlled partial seizures in which Trileptal was added to existing AED therapy (up to two concomitant AEDs). By protocol, the dosage of concomitant AEDs could not be reduced as Trileptal was added. Trileptal was titrated to reach a target dose ranging from 30 mg/kg to 46 mg/kg (based on a patient’s body weight with fixed doses for predefined weight ranges). Cognitive adverse events occurred in 5.8% of oxcarbazepine-treated patients (the single most common event being concentration impairment, 4 of 138 patients) and in 3.1% of patients treated with placebo. In addition, 34.8% of oxcarbazepine-treated patients and 14.0% of placebo-treated patients experienced somnolence. (No patient discontinued due to a cognitive adverse event or somnolence.). Finally, 23.2% of oxcarbazepine-treated patients and 7.0% of placebo-treated patients experienced ataxia or gait disturbances. Two (1.4%) oxcarbazepine-treated patients and 1 (0.8%) placebo-treated patient discontinued due to ataxia or gait disturbances. 5.8 Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)/Multi-Organ Hypersensitivity Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS), also known as multi-organ hypersensitivity, has occurred with Trileptal. Some of these events have been fatal or life-threatening. DRESS typically, although not exclusively, presents with fever, rash, and/or lymphadenopathy, in association with other organ system involvement, such as hepatitis, nephritis, hematologic abnormalities, myocarditis, or myositis, sometimes resembling an acute viral infection. Eosinophilia is often present. This disorder is variable in its expression, and other organ systems not noted here may be involved. It is important to note that early manifestations of hypersensitivity (e.g., fever, lymphadenopathy) may be present even though rash is not evident. If such signs or symptoms are present, the patient should be evaluated immediately. Trileptal should be discontinued if an alternative etiology for the signs or symptoms cannot be established. Although there are no case reports to indicate cross sensitivity with other drugs that produce this syndrome, the experience amongst drugs associated with DRESS/multi-organ hypersensitivity would indicate this to be a possibility [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. 5.9 Hematologic Events Rare reports of pancytopenia, agranulocytosis, and leukopenia have been seen in patients treated with Trileptal during postmarketing experience. Discontinuation of the drug should be considered if any evidence of these hematologic events develop. 5.10 Seizure Control During Pregnancy Due to physiological changes during pregnancy, plasma levels of the active metabolite of oxcarbazepine, the 10-monohydroxy derivative (MHD), may gradually decrease throughout pregnancy. It is recommended that patients be monitored carefully during pregnancy. Close monitoring should continue through the postpartum period because MHD levels may return after delivery. 5.11 Laboratory Tests Serum sodium levels below 125 mmol/L have been observed in patients treated with Trileptal [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Experience from clinical trials indicates that serum sodium levels return toward normal when the Trileptal dosage is reduced or discontinued, or when the patient was treated conservatively (e.g., fluid restriction). Laboratory data from clinical trials suggest that Trileptal use was associated with decreases in T4, without changes in T3 or TSH.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The most commonly observed (≥5%) adverse experiences were: dizziness, somnolence, diplopia, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, ataxia, abnormal vision, abdominal pain, tremor, dyspepsia, abnormal gait, and in pediatric patients <4 years old, also infections and infestations. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation at 1-888-669-6682 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Studies Experience Most Common Adverse Reactions in All Clinical Studies Adjunctive Therapy/Monotherapy in Adults Previously Treated with other AEDs: The most commonly observed (≥5%) adverse reactions seen in association with Trileptal and substantially more frequent than in placebo-treated patients were: dizziness, somnolence, diplopia, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, ataxia, abnormal vision, abdominal pain, tremor, dyspepsia, abnormal gait. Approximately 23% of these 1,537 adult patients discontinued treatment because of an adverse experience. The adverse reactions most commonly associated with discontinuation were: dizziness (6.4%), diplopia (5.9%), ataxia (5.2%), vomiting (5.1%), nausea (4.9%), somnolence (3.8%), headache (2.9%), fatigue (2.1%), abnormal vision (2.1%), tremor (1.8%), abnormal gait (1.7%), rash (1.4%), hyponatremia (1.0%). Monotherapy in Adults Not Previously Treated with other AEDs: The most commonly observed (≥5%) adverse reactions seen in association with Trileptal in these patients were similar to those in previously treated patients. Approximately 9% of these 295 adult patients discontinued treatment because of an adverse experience. The adverse reactions most commonly associated with discontinuation were: dizziness (1.7%), nausea (1.7%), rash (1.7%), headache (1.4%). Adjunctive Therapy/ Monotherapy in Pediatric Patients 4 Years Old and Above Previously Treated with other AEDs: The most commonly observed (≥5%) adverse reactions seen in association with Trileptal in these patients were similar to those seen in adults. Approximately 11% of these 456 pediatric patients discontinued treatment because of an adverse experience. The adverse reactions most commonly associated with discontinuation were: somnolence (2.4%), vomiting (2.0%), ataxia (1.8%), diplopia (1.3%), dizziness (1.3%), fatigue (1.1%), nystagmus (1.1%). Monotherapy in Pediatric Patients 4 Years Old and Above Not Previously Treated with other AEDs : The most commonly observed (≥5%) adverse reactions seen in association with Trileptal in these patients were similar to those in adults. Approximately 9.2% of 152 pediatric patients discontinued treatment because of an adverse experience. The adverse reactions most commonly associated (≥1%) with discontinuation were rash (5.3%) and maculopapular rash (1.3%). Adjunctive Therapy/ Monotherapy in Pediatric Patients 1 Month to <4 Years Old Previously Treated or Not Previously Treated with other AEDs: The most commonly observed (≥5%) adverse reactions seen in association with Trileptal in these patients were similar to those seen in older children and adults except for infections and infestations which were more frequently seen in these younger children. Approximately 11% of these 241 pediatric patients discontinued treatment because of an adverse experience. The adverse reactions most commonly associated with discontinuation were: convulsions (3.7%), status epilepticus (1.2%), and ataxia (1.2%). Incidence in Controlled Clinical Studies: The prescriber should be aware that the figures in Tables 3, 4, 5 and 6 cannot be used to predict the frequency of adverse reactions in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors may differ from those prevailing during clinical studies. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be directly compared with figures obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, or investigators. An inspection of these frequencies, however, does provide the prescriber with one basis to estimate the relative contribution of drug and nondrug factors to the adverse event incidences in the population studied. Controlled Clinical Studies of Adjunctive Therapy/ Monotherapy in Adults Previously Treated with other AEDs: Table 3 lists treatment-emergent signs and symptoms that occurred in at least 2% of adult patients with epilepsy treated with Trileptal or placebo as adjunctive treatment and were numerically more common in the patients treated with any dose of Trileptal. Table 4 lists treatment-emergent signs and symptoms in patients converted from other AEDs to either high dose Trileptal or low dose (300 mg) Trileptal. Note that in some of these monotherapy studies patients who dropped out during a preliminary tolerability phase are not included in the tables. Table 3 Treatment-Emergent Adverse Event Incidence in a Controlled Clinical Study of Adjunctive Therapy in Adults (Events in at Least 2% of Patients Treated with 2400 mg/day of Trileptal and Numerically More Frequent than in the Placebo Group) Oxcarbazepine Dosage (mg/day) Body System/ Adverse Event OXC 600 N=163 % OXC 1200 N=171 % OXC 2400 N=126 % Placebo N=166 % Body as a Whole Fatigue 15 12 15 7 Asthenia 6 3 6 5 Edema Legs 2 1 2 1 Weight Increase 1 2 2 1 Feeling Abnormal 0 1 2 0 Cardiovascular System Hypotension 0 1 2 0 Digestive System Nausea 15 25 29 10 Vomiting 13 25 36 5 Pain Abdominal 10 13 11 5 Diarrhea 5 6 7 6 Dyspepsia 5 5 6 2 Constipation 2 2 6 4 Gastritis 2 1 2 1 Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders Hyponatremia 3 1 2 1 Musculoskeletal System Muscle Weakness 1 2 2 0 Sprains and Strains 0 2 2 1 Nervous System Headache 32 28 26 23 Dizziness 26 32 49 13 Somnolence 20 28 36 12 Ataxia 9 17 31 5 Nystagmus 7 20 26 5 Gait Abnormal 5 10 17 1 Insomnia 4 2 3 1 Tremor 3 8 16 5 Nervousness 2 4 2 1 Agitation 1 1 2 1 Coordination Abnormal 1 3 2 1 EEG Abnormal 0 0 2 0 Speech Disorder 1 1 3 0 Confusion 1 1 2 1 Cranial Injury NOS 1 0 2 1 Dysmetria 1 2 3 0 Thinking Abnormal 0 2 4 0 Respiratory System Rhinitis 2 4 5 4 Skin and Appendages Acne 1 2 2 0 Special Senses Diplopia 14 30 40 5 Vertigo 6 12 15 2 Vision Abnormal 6 14 13 4 Accommodation Abnormal 0 0 2 0 Table 4 Treatment-Emergent Adverse Event Incidence in Controlled Clinical Studies of Monotherapy in Adults Previously Treated with Other AEDs (Events in at Least 2% of Patients Treated with 2400 mg/day of Trileptal and Numerically More Frequent than in the Low Dose Control Group) Oxcarbazepine Dosage (mg/day) Body System/ Adverse Event 2400 N=86 % 300 N=86 % Body as a Whole Fatigue 21 5 Fever 3 0 Allergy 2 0 Edema Generalized 2 1 Pain Chest 2 0 Digestive System Nausea 22 7 Vomiting 15 5 Diarrhea 7 5 Dyspepsia 6 1 Anorexia 5 3 Pain Abdominal 5 3 Mouth Dry 3 0 Hemorrhage Rectum 2 0 Toothache 2 1 Hemic and Lymphatic System Lymphadenopathy 2 0 Infections and Infestations Infection Viral 7 5 Infection 2 0 Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders Hyponatremia 5 0 Thirst 2 0 Nervous System Headache 31 15 Dizziness 28 8 Somnolence 19 5 Anxiety 7 5 Ataxia 7 1 Confusion 7 0 Nervousness 7 0 Insomnia 6 3 Tremor 6 3 Amnesia 5 1 Convulsions Aggravated 5 2 Emotional Lability 3 2 Hypoesthesia 3 1 Coordination Abnormal 2 1 Nystagmus 2 0 Speech Disorder 2 0 Respiratory System Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 10 5 Coughing 5 0 Bronchitis 3 0 Pharyngitis 3 0 Skin and Appendages Hot Flushes 2 1 Purpura 2 0 Special Senses Vision Abnormal 14 2 Diplopia 12 1 Taste Perversion 5 0 Vertigo 3 0 Earache 2 1 Ear Infection NOS 2 0 Urogenital and Reproductive System Urinary Tract Infection 5 1 Micturition Frequency 2 1 Vaginitis 2 0 Controlled Clinical Study of Monotherapy in Adults Not Previously Treated with other AEDs: Table 5 lists treatment-emergent signs and symptoms in a controlled clinical study of monotherapy in adults not previously treated with other AEDs that occurred in at least 2% of adult patients with epilepsy treated with Trileptal or placebo and were numerically more common in the patients treated with Trileptal. Table 5 Treatment-Emergent Adverse Event Incidence in a Controlled Clinical Study of Monotherapy in Adults Not Previously Treated with Other AEDs (Events in at Least 2% of Patients Treated with Trileptal and Numerically More Frequent than in the Placebo Group) Body System/ Adverse Event Oxcarbazepine N=55 % Placebo N=49 % Body as a Whole Falling Down NOS 4 0 Digestive System Nausea 16 12 Diarrhea 7 2 Vomiting 7 6 Constipation 5 0 Dyspepsia 5 4 Musculoskeletal System Pain Back 4 2 Nervous System Dizziness 22 6 Headache 13 10 Ataxia 5 0 Nervousness 5 2 Amnesia 4 2 Coordination Abnormal 4 2 Tremor 4 0 Respiratory System Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 7 0 Epistaxis 4 0 Infection Chest 4 0 Sinusitis 4 2 Skin and Appendages Rash 4 2 Special Senses Vision Abnormal 4 0 Controlled Clinical Studies of Adjunctive Therapy/ Monotherapy in Pediatric Patients Previously Treated with other AEDs: Table 6 lists treatment-emergent signs and symptoms that occurred in at least 2% of pediatric patients with epilepsy treated with Trileptal or placebo as adjunctive treatment and were numerically more common in the patients treated with Trileptal. Table 6 Treatment-Emergent Adverse Event Incidence in Controlled Clinical Studies of Adjunctive Therapy/Monotherapy in Pediatric Patients Previously Treated with Other AEDs (Events in at Least 2% of Patients Treated with Trileptal and Numerically More Frequent than in the Placebo Group) Body System/ Adverse Event Oxcarbazepine N=171 % Placebo N=139 % Body as a Whole Fatigue 13 9 Allergy 2 0 Asthenia 2 1 Digestive System Vomiting 33 14 Nausea 19 5 Constipation 4 1 Dyspepsia 2 0 Nervous System Headache 31 19 Somnolence 31 13 Dizziness 28 8 Ataxia 13 4 Nystagmus 9 1 Emotional Lability 8 4 Gait Abnormal 8 3 Tremor 6 4 Speech Disorder 3 1 Concentration Impaired 2 1 Convulsions 2 1 Muscle Contractions Involuntary 2 1 Respiratory System Rhinitis 10 9 Pneumonia 2 1 Skin and Appendages Bruising 4 2 Sweating Increased 3 0 Special Senses Diplopia 17 1 Vision Abnormal 13 1 Vertigo 2 0 Other Events Observed in Association with the Administration of Trileptal In the paragraphs that follow, the adverse events, other than those in the preceding tables or text, that occurred in a total of 565 children and 1,574 adults exposed to Trileptal and that are reasonably likely to be related to drug use are presented. Events common in the population, events reflecting chronic illness and events likely to reflect concomitant illness are omitted particularly if minor. They are listed in order of decreasing frequency. Because the reports cite events observed in open label and uncontrolled trials, the role of Trileptal in their causation cannot be reliably determined. Body as a Whole: fever, malaise, pain chest precordial, rigors, weight decrease. Cardiovascular System: bradycardia, cardiac failure, cerebral hemorrhage, hypertension, hypotension postural, palpitation, syncope, tachycardia. Digestive System: appetite increased, blood in stool, cholelithiasis, colitis, duodenal ulcer, dysphagia, enteritis, eructation, esophagitis, flatulence, gastric ulcer, gingival bleeding, gum hyperplasia, hematemesis, hemorrhage rectum, hemorrhoids, hiccup, mouth dry, pain biliary, pain right hypochondrium, retching, sialoadenitis, stomatitis, stomatitis ulcerative. Hematologic and Lymphatic System: thrombocytopenia. Laboratory Abnormality: gamma-GT increased, hyperglycemia, hypocalcemia, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia, liver enzymes elevated, serum transaminase increased. Musculoskeletal System: hypertonia muscle. Nervous System: aggressive reaction, amnesia, anguish, anxiety, apathy, aphasia, aura, convulsions aggravated, delirium, delusion, depressed level of consciousness, dysphonia, dystonia, emotional lability, euphoria, extrapyramidal disorder, feeling drunk, hemiplegia, hyperkinesia, hyperreflexia, hypoesthesia, hypokinesia, hyporeflexia, hypotonia, hysteria, libido decreased, libido increased, manic reaction, migraine, muscle contractions involuntary, nervousness, neuralgia, oculogyric crisis, panic disorder, paralysis, paroniria, personality disorder, psychosis, ptosis, stupor, tetany. Respiratory System: asthma, dyspnea, epistaxis, laryngismus, pleurisy. Skin and Appendages: acne, alopecia, angioedema, bruising, dermatitis contact, eczema, facial rash, flushing, folliculitis, heat rash, hot flushes, photosensitivity reaction, pruritus genital, psoriasis, purpura, rash erythematous, rash maculopapular, vitiligo, urticaria. Special Senses: accommodation abnormal, cataract, conjunctival hemorrhage, edema eye, hemianopia, mydriasis, otitis externa, photophobia, scotoma, taste perversion, tinnitus, xerophthalmia. Surgical and Medical Procedures: procedure dental oral, procedure female reproductive, procedure musculoskeletal, procedure skin. Urogenital and Reproductive System: dysuria, hematuria, intermenstrual bleeding, leukorrhea, menorrhagia, micturition frequency, pain renal, pain urinary tract, polyuria, priapism, renal calculus. Other: Systemic lupus erythematosus. 6.2 Post-Marketing and Other Experience The following adverse events have been observed in named patient programs or post-marketing experience. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Anaphylaxis : [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Digestive System: pancreatitis and/or lipase and/or amylase increase Hem atolog ic and Lymphatic System s : aplastic anemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)] Metabolism: hypothyroidism Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)], Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis (AGEP) Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders: There have been reports of decreased bone mineral density, osteoporosis and fractures in patients on long-term therapy with Trileptal.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Oxcarbazepine can inhibit CYP2C19 and induce CYP3A4/5 with potentially important effects on plasma concentrations of other drugs. The inhibition of CYP2C19 by oxcarbazepine and MHD can cause increased plasma concentrations of drugs that are substrates of CYP2C19. Oxcarbazepine and MHD induce a subgroup of the cytochrome P450 3A family (CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) responsible for the metabolism of dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, oral contraceptives and cyclosporine resulting in a lower plasma concentration of these drugs [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In addition, several AEDs that are cytochrome P450 inducers can decrease plasma concentrations of oxcarbazepine and MHD. No autoinduction has been observed with Trileptal. Phenytoin: Increased phenytoin levels. Reduced dose of phenytoin may be required. (7.1) Carbamazepine: Decreased plasma levels of MHD (the active metabolite). Dose adjustments may be necessary. (7.1) Phenobarbital: Decreased plasma levels of MHD. Dose adjustments may be necessary. (7.1) Oral Contraceptive: Patients should be advised that Trileptal may decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives. (7.2) 7.1 Antiepileptic Drugs Potential interactions between Trileptal and other AEDs were assessed in clinical studies. The effect of these interactions on mean AUCs and Cmin are summarized in Table 7. Table 7 Summary of AED Interactions with Trileptal AED Coadministered Dose of AED (mg/day) Trileptal Dose (mg/day) Influence of Trileptal on AED Concentration (Mean Change, 90% Confidence Interval) Influence of AED on MHD Concentration (Mean Change, 90% Confidence Interval) Carbamazepine 400-2000 900 nc1 40% decrease [CI: 17% decrease, 57% decrease] Phenobarbital 100-150 600-1800 14% increase [CI: 2% increase, 24% increase] 25% decrease [CI: 12% decrease, 51% decrease] Phenytoin 250-500 600-1800 >1200-2400 nc1,2 up to 40% increase3 [CI: 12% increase, 60% increase] 30% decrease [CI: 3% decrease, 48% decrease] Valproic acid 400-2800 600-1800 nc1 18% decrease [CI: 13% decrease, 40% decrease] 1 nc denotes a mean change of less than 10% 2 Pediatrics 3 Mean increase in adults at high Trileptal doses In vivo, the plasma levels of phenytoin increased by up to 40% when Trileptal was given at doses above 1200 mg/day. Therefore, when using doses of Trileptal greater than 1200 mg/day during adjunctive therapy, a decrease in the dose of phenytoin may be required. The increase of phenobarbital level, however, is small (15%) when given with Trileptal. Strong inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes (i.e., carbamazepine, phenytoin and phenobarbital) have been shown to decrease the plasma levels of MHD (29%-40%). No autoinduction has been observed with Trileptal. 7.2 Hormonal Contraceptives Coadministration of Trileptal with an oral contraceptive has been shown to influence the plasma concentrations of the two hormonal components, ethinylestradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG). The mean AUC values of EE were decreased by 48% [90% CI: 22-65] in one study and 52% [90% CI: 38-52] in another study. The mean AUC values of LNG were decreased by 32% [90% CI: 20-45] in one study and 52% [90% CI: 42-52] in another study. Therefore, concurrent use of Trileptal with hormonal contraceptives may render these contraceptives less effective. Studies with other oral or implant contraceptives have not been conducted. 7.3 Calcium Antagonists After repeated coadministration of Trileptal, the AUC of felodipine was lowered by 28% [90% CI: 20-33]. Verapamil produced a decrease of 20% [90% CI: 18-27] of the plasma levels of MHD. 7.4 Other Drug Interactions Cimetidine, erythromycin and dextropropoxyphene had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of MHD. Results with warfarin show no evidence of interaction with either single or repeated doses of Trileptal. 7.5 Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions There are no known interactions of Trileptal with commonly used laboratory tests.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: Plasma levels of MHD may be decreased. Monitor patients. Based on animal data, may cause fetal harm. To enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry call (888) 233-2334 (toll free). (8.1) In patients with a creatinine clearance <30mL/min, Trileptal should be started at one-half the usual starting dose and increased slowly (2, 8.6, 12.3) 8.1 Pregnancy Trileptal levels may decrease during pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]. Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled clinical studies of Trileptal in pregnant women; however, Trileptal is closely related structurally to carbamazepine, which is considered to be teratogenic in humans. Given this fact, and the results of the animal studies described, it is likely that Trileptal is a human teratogen. Trileptal should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Increased incidences of fetal structural abnormalities and other manifestations of developmental toxicity (embryolethality, growth retardation) were observed in the offspring of animals treated with either oxcarbazepine or its active 10-hydroxy metabolite (MHD) during pregnancy at doses similar to the maximum recommended human dose. When pregnant rats were given oxcarbazepine (30, 300, or 1000 mg/kg) orally throughout the period of organogenesis, increased incidences of fetal malformations (craniofacial, cardiovascular, and skeletal) and variations were observed at the intermediate and high doses (approximately 1.2 and 4 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] on a mg/m2 basis). Increased embryofetal death and decreased fetal body weights were seen at the high dose. Doses ≥300 mg/kg were also maternally toxic (decreased body weight gain, clinical signs), but there is no evidence to suggest that teratogenicity was secondary to the maternal effects. In a study in which pregnant rabbits were orally administered MHD (20, 100, or 200 mg/kg) during organogenesis, embryofetal mortality was increased at the highest dose (1.5 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). This dose produced only minimal maternal toxicity. In a study in which female rats were dosed orally with oxcarbazepine (25, 50, or 150 mg/kg) during the latter part of gestation and throughout the lactation period, a persistent reduction in body weights and altered behavior (decreased activity) were observed in offspring exposed to the highest dose (0.6 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). Oral administration of MHD (25, 75, or 250 mg/kg) to rats during gestation and lactation resulted in a persistent reduction in offspring weights at the highest dose (equivalent to the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). To provide information regarding the effects of in utero exposure to Trileptal, physicians are advised to recommend that pregnant patients taking Trileptal enroll in the NAAED Pregnancy Registry. This can be done by calling the toll free number 1-888-233-2334, and must be done by patients themselves. Information on the registry can also be found at the website http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/. 8.2 Labor and Delivery The effect of Trileptal on labor and delivery in humans has not been evaluated. 8.3 Nursing Mothers Oxcarbazepine and its active metabolite (MHD) are excreted in human milk. A milk-to-plasma concentration ratio of 0.5 was found for both. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions to Trileptal in nursing infants, a decision should be made about whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug in nursing women, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use Trileptal is indicated for use as adjunctive therapy for partial seizures in patients aged 2-16 years. Trileptal is also indicated as monotherapy for partial seizures in patients aged 4-16 years. Trileptal has been given to 898 patients between the ages of 1 month-17 years in controlled clinical trials (332 treated as monotherapy) and about 677 patients between the ages of 1 month-17 years in other trials [s ee Adverse Reactions (6.1) for a description of the adverse events associated with Trileptal use in this population]. 8.5 Geriatric Use There were 52 patients over age 65 in controlled clinical trials and 565 patients over the age of 65 in other trials. Following administration of single (300 mg) and multiple (600 mg/day) doses of Trileptal in elderly volunteers (60-82 years of age), the maximum plasma concentrations and AUC values of MHD were 30%-60% higher than in younger volunteers (18-32 years of age). Comparisons of creatinine clearance in young and elderly volunteers indicate that the difference was due to age-related reductions in creatinine clearance. 8.6 Renal Impairment In renally-impaired patients (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min), the elimination half-life of MHD is prolonged with a corresponding two-fold increase in AUC [see Clinical Pharmacology (12. 3 )]. Trileptal therapy should be initiated at one-half the usual starting dose and increased, if necessary, at a slower than usual rate until the desired clinical response is achieved.