CNS depressant effects: Impairs alertness and motor coordination. Instruct patients on correct use (5.1) Evaluate for co-morbid diagnoses: Re-evaluate if insomnia persists after 7 to 10 days of use (5.2) Severe anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions: Angioedema and anaphylaxis have been reported. Do not re-challenge if such reactions occur (5.3) "Sleep-driving" and other complex behaviors while not fully awake. Risk increases with dose and use with other CNS depressants and alcohol. Immediately evaluate any new onset behavioral changes (5.4) Depression: Worsening of depression or suicidal thinking may occur. Prescribe the least number of tablets feasible to avoid intentional overdose (5.5) Respiratory Depression: Consider this risk before prescribing in patients with compromised respiratory function (5.6) 5.1 CNS Depressant Effects and Next-Day Impairment Zolpidem Tartrate Sublingual Tablets, like other sedative-hypnotic drugs, has central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects. Co-administration with other CNS depressants (e.g., benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, alcohol) increases the risk of CNS depression. Dosage adjustments of Zolpidem Tartrate Sublingual Tablets and of other concomitant CNS depressants may be necessary when Zolpidem Tartrate Sublingual Tablets are administered with such agents because of the potentially additive effects. The use of Zolpidem Tartrate Sublingual Tablets with other sedative-hypnotics (including other zolpidem products) at bedtime or the middle of the night is not recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. In a driving study, healthy subjects who received Zolpidem Tartrate Sublingual Tablets with fewer than four hours of bedtime remaining had evidence of impaired driving compared to subjects who received placebo [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. The risk of next-day driving impairment (and psychomotor impairment) is increased if Zolpidem Tartrate Sublingual Tablets is taken with less than 4 hours of bedtime remaining, if higher than recommended dose is taken, if co-administered with other CNS depressants, or co-administered with other drugs that increase the blood levels of zolpidem. 5.2 Need to Evaluate for Co-morbid Diagnoses Because sleep disturbances may be the presenting manifestation of a physical and/or psychiatric disorder, symptomatic treatment of insomnia should be initiated only after a careful evaluation of the patient. The failure of insomnia to remit after 7 to 10 days of treatment may indicate the presence of a primary psychiatric and/or medical illness that should be evaluated. Worsening of insomnia or the emergence of new thinking or behavior abnormalities may be the consequence of an unrecognized psychiatric or physical disorder. Such findings have emerged during the course of treatment with sedative-hypnotic drugs, including zolpidem. 5.3 Severe Anaphylactic and Anaphylactoid Reactions Cases of angioedema involving the tongue, glottis, or larynx have been reported in patients after taking the first or subsequent doses of zolpidem. Some patients have had additional symptoms such as dyspnea, throat closing, or nausea and vomiting that suggest anaphylaxis. Some patients have required medical therapy in the emergency department. If angioedema involves the throat, glottis or larynx, airway obstruction may occur and be fatal. Patients who develop angioedema or anaphylaxis after treatment with zolpidem should not be rechallenged with Zolpidem Tartrate Sublingual Tablets. 5.4 Abnormal Thinking and Behavioral Changes Abnormal thinking and behavior changes have been reported in patients treated with sedative-hypnotics including zolpidem. Some of these changes included decreased inhibition (e.g., aggressiveness and extroversion that seemed out of character), bizarre behavior, agitation, and depersonalization. Visual and auditory hallucinations have also been reported. In controlled trials of zolpidem tartrate 10 mg taken at bedtime, < 1% of adults with insomnia who received zolpidem reported hallucinations. In a clinical trial, 7% of pediatric patients treated with zolpidem tartrate 0.25 mg/kg taken at bedtime, reported hallucinations, versus 0% treated with placebo [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. Complex behaviors such as "sleep-driving" (i.e., driving while not fully awake after ingestion of a sedative-hypnotic, with amnesia for the event) have been reported in sedative-hypnotic-naive as well as in sedative-hypnotic-experienced persons. Although behaviors such as sleep-driving" have occurred with zolpidem alone at therapeutic doses, the co-administration of zolpidem with alcohol and other CNS depressants increases the risk of such behaviors, as does the use of zolpidem at doses exceeding the maximum recommended dose. Due to the risk to the patient and the community, discontinuation of Zolpidem Tartrate Sublingual Tablets should be strongly considered for patients who report a "sleep-driving" episode. Other complex behaviors (e.g., preparing and eating food, making phone calls, or having sex) have been reported in patients who are not fully awake after taking a sedative-hypnotic. As with "sleep-driving", patients usually do not remember these events. Amnesia, anxiety and other neuro-psychiatric symptoms may also occur. The emergence of any new behavioral sign or symptom of concern requires careful and immediate evaluation. 5.5 Use in Patients with Depression In primarily depressed patients treated with sedative-hypnotics, worsening of depression, and suicidal thoughts and actions (including completed suicides), have been reported. Suicidal tendencies may be present in such patients and protective measures may be required. Intentional overdosage is more common in this group of patients; therefore, the lowest number of tablets that is feasible should be prescribed for the patient at any one time. 5.6 Respiratory Depression Although studies with 10 mg zolpidem tartrate did not reveal respiratory depressant effects at hypnotic doses in healthy subjects or in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a reduction in the Total Arousal Index, together with a reduction in lowest oxygen saturation and increase in the times of oxygen desaturation below 80% and 90%, was observed in patients with mild-to-moderate sleep apnea when treated with zolpidem compared to placebo. Since sedative-hypnotics have the capacity to depress respiratory drive, precautions should be taken if Zolpidem Tartrate Sublingual Tablets are prescribed to patients with compromised respiratory function. Post-marketing reports of respiratory insufficiency in patients receiving 10 mg of zolpidem tartrate, most of whom had pre-existing respiratory impairment, have been reported. The risks of respiratory depression should be considered prior to prescribing Zolpidem Tartrate Sublingual Tablets in patients with respiratory impairment including sleep apnea and myasthenia gravis. 5.7 Withdrawal Effects There have been reports of withdrawal signs and symptoms following the rapid dose decrease or abrupt discontinuation of zolpidem. Monitor patients for tolerance, abuse, and dependence [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2) and (9.3)]. Phenylketonurics Phenylalanine is a component of aspartame. Each 3.5 mg and 1.75 mg Zolpidem Tartarate Sublingual Tablets contains 4.48 mg and 2.24 mg of phenylalanine.